About The Book

The most adopted textbook for anatomy and physiology courses in communciation sciences and disorders programs!

Anatomy & Physiology for Speech, Language, and Hearing, Sixth Edition provides a solid foundation in anatomical and physiological principles relevant to communication sciences and disorders. This bestselling textbook beloved by instructors and students integrates clinical information with everyday experiences to reveal how anatomy and physiology relate to the speech, language, and hearing systems. Combining comprehensive coverage with abundant, beautiful full-color illustrations and a strong practical focus, the text makes complex material approachable even for students with little or no background in anatomy and physiology.

The text includes numerous full-color anatomical images to help students form a clear, accurate understanding of the classical framework of the speech, language, and hearing systems. Photographs provide a real-life look at the body parts and functions. Use these images as reference for accuracy in describing body systems, parts, and processes.

Thoroughly updated to reflect current trends, techniques, and best practices, this new edition of is supported by innovative ANAQUEST study software (formerly called Anatesse) offers students further interactive learning via lessons and interactive quizzes, and other resources to help students of all learning styles master the material and prepare for professional licensing exams.

New to the Sixth Edition

  • Updated and expanded information on the physiology of swallowing that includes discussion of orofacial-myofunctional disorders and other swallowing dysfunction arising from physical etiologies.
  • More physiology content, including an introduction to the effects of pathology on communication within each of the physical systems of communication.
  • Many new photographs of specimens have been added, with a focus on a clear and accurate understanding of the classical framework of the speech, language, and hearing systems.
  • Clinical Notes boxes link anatomy and physiology with disorders seen by speech-language pathologists and audiologists to provide real-world clinical applications for students.
  • The ANAQUEST study software (formerly called Anatesse) is accessible on a PluralPlus companion website. The software now includes ten video lab experiences narrated by new contributor, Katrina Rhett, an anatomist and lecturer in the Department of Biological Sciences at Idaho State University. The authors have also added three-dimensional views with animations that explore the important processes of hearing, phonation, respiration, swallowing, and more.

Student Resources:

  • ANAQUEST study software as described above
  • Online quizzes for each chapter

Instructor Resources:

  • PowerPoint lecture slides
  • Test bank
  • Sample syllabi
  • Labs
  • Class Activities
  • Videos

About the Authors

J. Anthony (Tony) Seikel, PhD, is emeritus faculty at Idaho State University, where he taught graduate and undergraduate coursework in neuroanatomy and neuropathology over the course of his career in Communication Sciences and Disorders. He is co-author of numerous chapters, books and research publications in the fields of speech-language pathology and audiology. His current research is examining the relationship between orofacial myofunctional disorders and oropharyngeal dysphagia.

David G. Drumright, BS, grew up in Oklahoma and Kansas, taught electronics at DeVry for several years, then spent 20 years as a technician in acoustics and speech research. He developed many programs and devices for analysis and instruction in acoustics and speech/hearing. He has been semi-retired since 2002, working on graphics and programming for courseware.

Daniel J. Hudock, PhD, CCC-SLP, is an Associate Professor of Communication Sciences and Disorders in the College of Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences at Idaho State University. He is currently serving as the Speech Language Pathology Graduate Program Co-Director and Founding PhD in Rehabilitation and Communication Sciences Program Co-Coordinator. He has published over 30 articles and given over 100 presentations with several recent ones being invited half-day and full-day podium talks. In his TEDx Talk entitled, “Please Don’t Finish My Sentence”, he presents about his experience living with a stutter. Dr. Hudock has successfully completed several grants and is an avid volunteer within the profession and associations focused on fluency disorders, including serving in leadership positions, including the coordinating committee of ASHA’s SIG 4 on Fluency Disorders.  His two primary tracts of research focus on 1) better understanding, assessing, and treating fluency disorders through holistic interprofessional partnerships with mental health professionals and 2) the neuroscience of speech perception and production in people who stutter using high-density EEG and time-frequency analysis. He is the founding director of the Northwest Center for Fluency Disorders that offers an intensive interprofessional stuttering clinic with speech-language pathologists collaborating with counselors and clinical psychologists through an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) informed framework in the treatment of adolescent and adult stuttering. Lastly, he has taught courses on Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech and Hearing Mechanisms and Speech and Hearing Science for over a decade, starting as a graduate teaching assistant at East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina.

Table of Contents


About the Authors

About the Contributor


Introduction to Learner

Using this Text


Chapter 1. Basic Elements of Anatomy

Anatomy and Physiology

Terminology of Anatomy

            Terminology of Anatomy

Terms of Movement

Parts of the Body

Building Blocks of Anatomy: Tissues and Systems


Body Systems

Chapter Summary

Chapter 1 Study Questions

Chapter 1 Study Question Answers



Chapter 2. Anatomy of Respiration

The Support Structure of Respiration


Vertebral Column

Pelvic and Pectoral Girdles

Ribs and Rib Cage

Soft Tissue of the Thorax and Respiratory Passageway

Movement of Air Through the System

Muscles of Inspiration

Muscles of Forced Expiration

Chapter Summary

Chapter 2 Study Questions

Chapter 2 Study Question Answers



Chapter 3. Physiology of Respiration

The Flow of Respiration

Instruments in Respiration

Respiration for Life

Effects of Turbulence on Respiration

Respiratory Cycle

Developmental Processes in Respiration

Lung Volumes and Capacities

Lung Volumes

Lung Capacities

Pressures of the Respiratory System

Pressures Generated by the Tissue

Effects of Posture on Speech

Pressures and Volumes of Speech

Respiratory Pathologies Affecting Communication

Acute Conditions

Chronic Conditions

Neurogenic Etiologies

Chapter Summary

Chapter 3 Study Questions

Chapter 3 Study Question Answers



Chapter 4. Anatomy of Phonation

Framework of the Larynx

Inner Larynx

Laryngeal Membranes

Fine Structure of the Vocal Folds

Cavities of the Larynx

Cartilaginous Structure of the Larynx

Laryngeal Musculature

Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles

Laryngeal Elevators and Depressors

Chapter Summary

Chapter 4 Study Questions

Chapter 4 Study Question Answers



Chapter 5. Physiology of Phonation

Non-Speech Laryngeal Function

Laryngeal Function For Speech

A Brief Discussion of Acoustics

Instruments for Voicing

The Bernoulli Effect

Vocal Attack


Sustained Phonation

Vocal Register

Frequency, Pitch, and Pitch Change

Intensity and Intensity Change

Clinical Considerations

Linguistic Aspects of Pitch and Intensity

Theories of Phonation

Pathologies That May Affect Phonation

Structural Etiologies

Degenerative Neurological Diseases

Chapter Summary

Decibel Practice Activity

Chapter 5 Study Questions

Chapter 5 Study Question Answers



Chapter 6. Anatomy of Articulation and Resonation

Source-Filter Theory of Vowel Production

The Articulators

Bones of the Face and Cranial Skeleton

Bones of the Face

Bones of the Cranial Skeleton


Dental Development

Dental Occlusion

Cavities of the Articulatory System

Muscles of the Face and Mouth

Muscles of the Face

Muscles of the Mouth

Muscles of Mastication: Mandibular Elevators and Depressors

Muscles of the Velum

Muscles of the Pharynx

Chapter Summary

Chapter 6 Study Questions

Chapter 6 Study Question Answers



Chapter 7. Physiology of Articulation and Resonation

Instrumentation in Articulation

Speech Function





Development of Articulatory Ability

Development of the Vocal Tract

Coordinated Articulation

Central Control Theory

Dynamic or Action Theory Models

The DIVA Model of Speech Production

Pathologies That May Affect Articulation

Problems Affecting Dentition

Problems Affecting the Tongue

Mandibular and Maxillary Problems

Problems Affecting Lips and Palate

Neurogenic Conditions Affecting Speech

Chapter Summary

Chapter 7 Study Questions

Chapter 7 Study Question Answers



Chapter 8. Physiology of Mastication and Deglutition

Mastication and Deglutition

            Instrumentation in Swallowing Function

            Anatomical and Physiological Developmental Issues

Organizational Patterns of Mastication and Deglutition

            Oral Stage: Oral Preparation

            Oral Stage: Transport

Pharyngeal Stage

Esophageal Stage

Process Model of Mastication and Deglutition

Neurophysiological Underpinnings of Mastication and Deglutition

Sensation Associated with Mastication and Deglutition

Salivation Response

Reflexive Circuits of Mastication and Deglutition

Chewing Reflex

Orienting, Rooting, and Suckling/Sucking Reflexes

Uvular (Palatal) Reflex

Gag (Pharyngeal) Reflex

Retch and Vomit Reflex

Cough Reflex

Pain Withdrawal Reflex

Respiration Reflexes

Swallowing Reflex

Reexamination of the Patterns for Mastication and Deglutition: A Complex Integration of Reflexes and Voluntary Action

Pathologies Affecting Swallowing Function

Chapter Summary

Chapter 8 Study Questions

Chapter 8 Study Question Answers



Chapter 9. Anatomy of Hearing

The Structures of Hearing

Outer Ear

Middle Ear

Structure of the Tympanic Membrane

Landmarks of the Middle Ear

Inner Ear

Osseous Vestibule

Osseous Semicircular Canals

Osseous Cochlear Labyrinth

Innervation Pattern of the Organ of Corti

Chapter Summary

Chapter 9 Study Questions

Chapter 9 Study Question Answers



Chapter 10. Auditory Physiology

Instrumentation in Hearing Research

Outer Ear

Middle Ear Function

Inner Ear Function

Vestibular Mechanism

Auditory Mechanism: Mechanical Events

Electrical Events

Resting Potentials

Potentials Arising from Stimulation

Neural Responses

Post-Stimulus Time Histograms

Interspike Interval and Period Histograms

Frequency Selectivity

Auditory Pathway Responses

Pathologies That May Affect Audition

Inflammatory Conditions

Congenital Problems

Traumatic Lesions

Neoplastic Changes

Bone Changes

Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

Chapter Summary

Chapter 10 Study Questions

Chapter 10 Study Question Answers



Chapter 11. Neuroanatomy


Divisions of the Nervous System

Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System

Autonomic and Somatic Nervous Systems

Development Divisions

Anatomy of the CNS and PNS


Anatomy of the Cerebrum

Medial Surface of Cerebral Cortex

Inferior Surface of Cerebral Cortex

Myelinated Fibers

Anatomy of the Subcortex

Cerebrovascular System


Anatomy of the Brainstem

Superficial Brainstem Landmarks

Deep Structure of the Brainstem

Cranial Nerves

Cranial Nerve Classification

Specific Cranial Nerves

Anatomy of the Spinal Cord

Chapter Summary

Chapter 11 Study Questions

Chapter 11 Study Question Answers



Chapter 12. Neurophysiology

Instrumentation in Neurophysiology

The Neuron

Neuron Function

Muscle Function

Higher Functioning

Motor System Lesions

Afferent Inputs

Association Regions

Hemispheric Specialization

Lesion Studies

Motor Control for Speech

Neurogenic Conditions That May Affect Communication

Acquired Conditions

Degenerative Diseases

Chapter Summary

Chapter 12 Study Questions

Chapter 12 Study Question Answers



Appendix A. Anatomical Terms


Appendix B. Useful Combining Forms


Appendix C. Muscles of Respiration

Thoracic Muscles of Inspiration

Primary Inspiratory Muscle

Accessory Thoracic Muscles of Inspiration

Erector Spinae (Sacrospinal Muscles)

Accessory Muscles of Neck

Muscles of Upper Arm and Shoulder

Thoracic Muscles of Expiration

Posterior Thoracic Muscles

Abdominal Muscles of Expiration

Anterolateral Abdominal Muscles

Posterior Abominal Muscles

Muscles of Upper Limb


Appendix D. Muscles of Phonation

Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles

Extrinsic Laryngeal, Infrahyoid, and Suprahyoid Muscles

Hyoid and Laryngeal Elevators

Hyoid and Laryngeal Depressors


Appendix E. Muscles of Face, Soft Palate, and Pharynx

Muscles of the Face

Intrinsic Tongue Muscles

Extrinsic Tongue Muscles

Mandibular Elevators and Depressors

Muscles of the Velum

Muscles of the Pharynx


Appendix F. Sensors

General Classes

Specific Types

Classes of Sensation


Appendix G. Cranial Nerves

Classes of Cranial Nerves

Cranial Nerves, Sources, and Functions





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