About The Book

The third edition of Clinical Audiology: An Introduction provides a comprehensive enhancement of all the introductory material available in previous editions of this stimulating textbook. Students can gain an understanding of the scope of the field of audiology and feel prepared to dive deeper into the subject as they progress through their courses. This essential book, now with even more exciting content and features, focuses on the clinical nature of audiology to familiarize students with the many challenging questions encountered by an audiologist. This textbook is intended primarily for beginning-level students in the fields of audiology and speech-language pathology. It is intended for the first major courses in audiology, whether it be at the undergraduate or graduate level. Whether your goal is to pursue a career as an audiologist or a speech-language pathologist, Clinical Audiology: An Introduction, Third Edition is the most comprehensive, accessible book available to provide you with the clinical understanding to advance in your chosen field.

New to the Third Edition

  • New coauthor: Virginia Ramachandran, MSW, AuD, PhD
  • Two new chapters on implantable hearing technology and hearing assistive and connectivity technologies
  • New case studies and enhanced perspectives on avoiding clinical errors
  • Updated descriptions of hearing disorders and their causes
  • Expanded focus on diagnostic approach strategies
  • Expanded audiological treatment section
  • Updated hearing aid technology and verification approaches
  • An introduction to vestibular system assessment
  • PowerPoint lecture slides for instructors and sketch notes and flashcards for students

Key Features

  • Learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter preview the concepts to be discussed.
  • End of chapter discussion questions aid students in applying concepts.
  • End of chapter summaries outline the key points from the chapter improve retention
  • Margin notes provide key terms and definitions.
  • Clinical notes describe particular techniques students might consider using
  • Comprehensive glossary and index

About The Authors

Brad A. Stach, PhD, is director of the Division of Audiology, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, of the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, Michigan. He also serves as a faculty member and oversees the clinical education component of the AuD program at Wayne State University Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders. Dr. Stach is the author of a number of scientific articles, books, and book chapters and is the Audiology Editor-in-Chief for Plural Publishing. He is a founding board member of the American Academy of Audiology and has served as its President and the Chair of its Foundation’s Board of Trustees.

Virginia Ramachandran, AuD, PhD, is the Head of Audiology at Oticon, Inc. Dr. Ramachandran is president-elect of the American Academy of Audiology. Additional professional leadership has included serving on the board of directors of the Accreditation Commission for Audiology Education and serving as president of the Michigan Academy of Audiology. She is also an adjunct instructor at Wayne State University. Dr. Ramachandran serves on the editorial board for Plural Publishing.

Table Of Contents

Chapter 1. The Profession of Audiology in the United States
Learning Objectives
What Is an Audiologist?
What Is an Audiologist’s Role?

Identification of Hearing Loss
Assessment and Diagnosis of Hearing Loss
Treatment of Hearing Loss
Assessment and Treatment of Balance Function
Education
Prevention
Research
Related Activities
Scope of Practice

Where Do Audiologists Practice?

Private Practice
Physician’s Practices
Hearing and Speech Clinics

Relation to Other Professions

Otolaryngology
Other Medical Specialties
Speech-Language Pathology
Non-Audiologist Hearing Aid Dispensers

The Evolution of Audiology

The Professional Heritage of Audiology
The Clinical Heritage of Audiology

Professional Requirements

Becoming an Audiologist
Academic and Clinical Requirements

Summary
Discussion Questions
Information Sources
Resources
Organizations

Section I. Hearing and Its Disorders

Chapter 2. The Nature of Hearing
Learning Objectives
The Nature of Sound

What Is Sound?
Properties of Sound

The Auditory System

Outer Ear
Middle Ear
Inner Ear
Auditory Nervous System
Anatomy Physiology

How We Hear

Absolute Sensitivity of Hearing
Differential Sensitivity
Properties of Pitch and Loudness

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 3. The Nature of Hearing Disorder
Learning Objectives
Degree and Configuration of Hearing Sensitivity Loss
Ear Specificity of Hearing Disorder
Type of Hearing Loss

Conductive Hearing Loss
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Mixed Hearing Loss
Suprathreshold Hearing Disorder
Functional Hearing Loss

Timing Factors Impacting Hearing Disorder
Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 4. Causes of Hearing Disorder
Learning Objectives
Auditory Pathology
Conductive Hearing Disorders

Congenital Outer- and Middle-Ear Anomalies
Impacted Cerumen
Other Outer-Ear Disorders
Otitis Media with Effusion (OME)
Complications of OME
Otosclerosis
Other Middle-Ear Disorders

Sensory Hearing Disorders

Congenital and Inherited Sensory Hearing Disorders
Acquired Sensory Hearing Disorders

Neural Hearing Disorders

Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder
VIIIth Nerve Tumors and Disorders
Brainstem Disorders Temporal-Lobe Disorders
Other Nervous System Disorders

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Section II. Audiologic Diagnosis

Chapter 5. Introduction to Audiologic Diagnosis
Learning Objectives
The First Question

Referral-Source Perspective
Importance of the Case History

The Audiologist’s Challenges

Evaluating Outer- and Middle-Ear Function
Measuring Hearing Sensitivity
Determining Type of Hearing Loss
Measuring Speech Recognition
Measuring Auditory Processing
Measuring the Impact of Hearing Loss
Screening Hearing Function

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 6. Audiologic Diagnostic Tools: Pure-Tone Audiometry
Learning Objectives
Equipment and Test Environment

The Audiometer
Transducers
Calibration
Test Environment

The Audiogram

Threshold of Hearing Sensitivity
Modes of Testing
Audiometric Symbols
Audiometric Descriptions

Establishing the Pure-Tone Audiogram

Patient Preparation
Audiometric Test Technique
Air Conduction
Bone Conduction
Masking

Audiometry Unplugged: Tuning Fork Tests
Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 7. Audiologic Diagnostic Tools: Speech Audiometry
Learning Objectives
Speech Audiometry
Uses of Speech Audiometry
Speech Audiometry Materials
Clinical Applications of Speech Audiometry
Predicting Speech Recognition
Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 8. Audiologic Diagnostic Tools: Immittance Measures
Learning Objectives
Immittance Audiometry
Instrumentation
Measurement Technique
Basic Immittance Measures

Tympanometry
Acoustic Reflexes

Principles of Interpretation
Clinical Applications

Middle-Ear Disorder
Cochlear Disorder
Retrocochlear Disorder

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 9. Audiologic Diagnostic Tools: Physiologic Measures
Learning Objectives
Auditory Evoked Potentials

Measurement Techniques
The Family of Auditory Evoked Potentials
Clinical Applications

Summary
Otoacoustic Emissions

Types of Otoacoustic Emissions
Relation to Hearing Sensitivity
Clinical Applications

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 10. The Test-Battery Approach to Audiologic Diagnosis
Learning Objectives
Determination of Auditory Disorder
The Test-Battery Approach in Adults

Value of a Comprehensive Test Battery
The Audiometric Test Battery
Diagnostic Thinking and Avoiding Errors
The Test Battery in Action

The Test-Battery Approach in Pediatrics

Diagnostic Challenges
The Test Battery
The Test Battery in Action

Different Approaches for Different Populations

Infant Screening
Auditory Processing Assessment
Functional Hearing Loss

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 11. Communicating Audiometric Results
Learning Objectives
Talking to Patients

Information to Convey
Matching Patient and Provider Perspectives

Writing Reports

Documenting and Reporting
Report Destination
Nature of the Referral
Information to Convey
Sample Reporting Strategy

Making Referrals
Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Section III. Audiologic Treatment

Chapter 12. Introduction to Audiologic Treatment
Learning Objectives
The First Questions

The Importance of Asking Why
Assessment of Treatment Candidacy

The Audiologist’s Challenge

Amplification — Yes or No?
Amplification Strategies
Approaches to Fitting Hearing Instruments
Approaches to Defining Success
Treatment Planning

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 13. Audiologic Treatment Tools: Hearing Aids
Learning Objectives
Hearing Instrument Anatomy

Microphone
Other Sound Input Sources
Amplifier
Loudspeaker
Hearing Instrument Styles

Hearing Instrument Physiology

Audibility
Hearing in Background Noise

Consideration for Hearing Aid Options

Acoustic Considerations
Instrumentation Considerations
Patient Factors

Special Considerations: Conductive Hearing Losses and Single-Sided Deafness
Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 14. Audiologic Treatment Tools: Implantable Hearing Technology
Learning Objectives
Cochlear Implants

Internal Components
External Components
Signal Processing
Candidacy for Cochlear Implants
Hybrid Cochlear Implants

Bone-Conduction Implants

Internal Components
External Components
Signal Processing
Candidacy for Bone-Conduction Implants

Middle-Ear Implants

Types of Middle-Ear Implants
Candidacy for Middle-Ear Implants

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 15. Audiologic Treatment Tools: Hearing Assistive and Connectivity Technologies
Learning Objectives
The Challenges of Complex Environments
Hearing Assistive Technology

Alerting Devices
Remote Microphone Systems

Telecommunication Access Technologies
Assistive Listening Devices

Personal Amplifiers
Personal Sound Amplification Products
Over-the-Counter Hearing Aids

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 16. Audiologic Treatment: The Hearing Aid Process
Learning Objectives
Hearing Aid Selection and Fitting

The Prescription of Gain
Hearing Instrument Selection
Hearing Instrument Fitting and Verification

Orientation, Counseling, and Follow-up
Assessing Outcomes
Post-Fitting Rehabilitation

Auditory Training and Speechreading
Educational Programming

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Chapter 17. Different Treatment Approaches for Different Populations
Learning Objectives
Adult Populations

Adult Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Geriatric Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Pediatric Populations

Pediatric Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Auditory Processing Disorder

Other Populations

Conductive Hearing Loss
Severe and Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

Section IV. Vestibular System Function and Assessment

Chapter 18. Introduction to Balance Function and Assessment
Kathryn F. Makowiec and Kaylee J. Smith
Learning Objectives
The Vestibular System

Anatomy & Physiology
The Vestibulo-ocular Reflex

Disorders of Dizziness and Balance

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Superior Canal Dehiscence
Vestibulotoxicity
Vestibular Neuritis/Labyrinthitis
Ménière’s Disease
Vestibular Migraine
Central Balance Disorders
Falls Risk in the Elderly

The Balance Function Test Battery

Importance of Case History
Videonystagmography/Electronystagmography (ENG/VNG)
Rotary Chair
Video Head Impulse Test (vHIT)
Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP)
Posturography

The Test Battery in Action

Expected Outcomes in Vestibular Disorders
Illustrative Cases

Summary
Discussion Questions
Resources

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