About the Book

Clinical Neuroscience for Communication Disorders: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology offers a comprehensive and easy-to-understand introduction to neuroscience for undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the field of communication disorders.

Packed with features to aid student understanding, this textbook introduces the neurologic underpinnings of systems involved in communication (speech, language, cognition, and hearing) and swallowing, from the nervous system to the anatomy of the head and neck. A highly readable writing style makes abstract and complex material accessible to students and provides just the right amount of information to challenge yet not overwhelm students.

What sets this book apart is the extensive infusion of clinical application. Each chapter begins by tying the content to the everyday clinical applications for speech-language pathologists, audiologists, and related professionals and includes clinical cases to illustrate neural functions. In addition to coverage of the main systems, this text contains chapters devoted to neuroplasticity, communication, and cognition to move beyond basic anatomy to the key principles of contemporary neuroscience and application of the concepts discussed. Additionally, explicit connections are drawn between cranial nerves, the oral mechanism examination, and clinical swallowing assessment. The clinical cases cover a variety of both pediatric and adult scenarios designed to highlight the interconnectedness of neural systems and the complexity of neurologically-based communication disorders. The cases span the breadth of clinical practice—developmental and acquired disorders, pediatric and adult cases, and disorders of speech, language, cognition, and hearing—and are cross-referenced with each of the other chapters for improved understanding.

Key Features

  • More than 150 customized illustrations solidify connections between anatomy and physiology
  • Clinical cases throughout the text and expanded versions of the cases in a stand-alone chapter illustrate clinical relevance of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology
  • Bolded keywords highlight foundational concepts and terminology
  • Boxes throughout the text offer an opportunity for applying learning through applications, exercises, glossaries of key terms, and clinical cases
  • End-of-chapter summaries provide an overview of the key concepts within the chapter in plain language
  • A bulleted list of key concepts concludes each chapter to reinforce learning outcomes
  • References and further reading augment student learning
  • PluralPlus companion website with PowerPoint lecture slides for instructors and case studies, lists of recommended reading and websites, and links to related videos for students

About The Authors

Margaret Lehman Blake, PhD, CCC-SLP, is a Professor in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at the University of Houston. Her research focuses on cognitive-communication disorders associated with right hemisphere brain damage  and spans basic processes, assessment, and treatment. She has taught neuroscience courses for over 15 years, and frequently presents on acquired cognitive-communication disorders. She is a recipient of the University of Houston Teaching Excellence Award. Dr. Blake is the author of The Right Hemisphere and Disorders of Cognition and Communication: Theory and Clinical Practice, also published by Plural Publishing.

Jerry K. Hoepner, PhD, CCC-SLP, is a Professor in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. His research addresses cognitive-communication interventions and teaching pedagogies. He has taught neuroscience courses for more than 15 years and presents frequently on cognitive-communication rehabilitation. He is a past recipient of the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Excellence in Mentoring Research award and the University of Wisconsin Systems Regent’s Excellence in Teaching award. Dr. Hoepner is also a 2021 ASHA Fellow recipient.

Table Of Contents

Preface: How to Use This Textbook
Acknowledgments
Reviews

Chapter 1. Overview of the Nervous System
Overview
Major Components
Organization of the Nervous System

Organizational Systems

Cytoarchitecture Organization
Organization by Function

Terminology
Nervous System Cells

Neurons
Glial Cells

Structures and Landmarks

Lobes

Frontal Lobes
Parietal Lobes
Temporal Lobes
Occipital Lobes

Subcortical Structures

Basal Ganglia
Thalamus

Cerebellum
Brainstem

Summary
References

Chapter 2. Ventricular System: Cranium, Ventricles, and Meninges
Overview
Cranium, Cranial Vault, and Its Contents
Meningeal Layers

Dura Mater
Arachnoid Layer and Pia Mater

Ventricles

Cerebrospinal Fluid Path and Functions
Communication Through the Ventricular System

Disruptions to the Ventricular and Meningeal System

Hydrocephalus
Meningeal Damage

Summary
Additional Resources

Chapter 3. Neuron Anatomy and Physiology
Overview
Classification of Neurons
Neuronal Communication

Big Picture Overview
Membrane Potentials

Synaptic Transmission

Action Potentials
Myelinated Versus Unmyelinated Axons
Synaptic Transmission

Types of Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitter Recovery and Degradation

Creating Meaning from Binary Signals

Patterns of Signals
Source of Signals
Region or Location

Conditions That Alter Synaptic Transmission

Neurologic Disorders and Diseases That Affect Synaptic Transmission

Parkinson’s Disease
Multiple Sclerosis
Myasthenia Gravis

Pharmacological Effects on Synaptic Transmission

Blocking Effects
Prolonging Effects
Mimicking Effect

Summary
Reference and Additional Resources

Chapter 4. Neuroembryology
Overview
The Neural Tube

Developmental (Embryologic) Precursors
Sulcus Limitans
Lamina Terminalis (Precursor to the Corpus Callosum)
Vesicles of the Neural Tube (CNS Precursors)
Landmark Timelines

Telencephalon and C-Shaped Development
Disruptions to Development and Consequences
Summary
References and Additional Resources

Chapter 5. Diencephalon
Overview
Diencephalic Structures

Thalamus

Thalamic nuclei

Epithalamus
Subthalamus
Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland

Damage to the Diencephalon
Summary

Chapter 6. Somatosensory Systems
Overview
Somatosensory System Structures

Sensory Receptors

Mechanoreceptors
Nociceptors
Proprioceptive Sensory Receptors

Thalamic Nuclei
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
Cortical Association Areas

Sensory Pathways

Dorsal Column–Medial Lemniscal Pathway
Spinothalamic Tracts
Spinocerebellar Tracts

Sensory Innervation
Damage to Somatosensory System Components

Spinal Cord Damage
Thalamic Damage
Cortical Damage

Summary

Chapter 7. Visual System
Overview
The Eye

Anterior Structures
Posterior Structures: The Retina
Visual Fields

Visual Pathway
Visual Cortex

Dorsal Pathway
Ventral Pathway

Damage to the Visual System

Visual Field Cuts
Cortical Damage

Summary

Chapter 8. Auditory and Vestibular Systems
Overview
Auditory System

The Cochlea

Converting Sound Waves Into Neural Signals

Auditory Pathway
Frequency and Intensity Coding in the Auditory System
Localization of Sound
Auditory Processing in the Cortex
Hearing Impairment and Damage to the Auditory System

 Conductive Hearing Loss
Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Vestibular System

Vestibular Pathways

Summary
Reference

Chapter 9. Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste
Olfaction
Olfaction: The Sense of Smell

Olfactory Pathway
Impairments of Olfaction

Gustation: The Sense of Taste

Gustatory Pathway
Factors Influencing Taste Perception
Impairments of Gustation

Summary
Reference

Chapter 10. Motor Systems
Overview
Motor System Structures

Primary Motor Strip
Premotor and Supplementary Motor Areas
Basal Ganglia
Cerebellum

Motor Pathways

Pyramidal Tracts

Cranial and Spinal Nerves
Corticospinal Tracts
Corticobulbar Tract

Extrapyramidal Tracts

Rubrospinal Tract
Tectospinal Tract
Vestibulospinal Tract
Reticulospinal Tract

Motor Units and Muscle Innervation
Clinical Implications

Motor Cortex
Motor Pathways
Neuromuscular Junction
Basal Ganglia
Cerebellum

Summary

Chapter 11. Cranial Nerves
Overview

General Functions

Cranial Nerve Pathways

Motor Pathways: Corticobulbar Tract
Sensory Pathways

Cranial Nerves III, IV, and VI: Occulomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens.

Muscles of the Eye
Oculomotor Nerve
Trochlear Nerve
Abducens Nerve

Cranial Nerve V: Trigeminal Nerve
Cranial Nerve VII: Facial Nerve
Cranial Nerve IX: Glossopharyngeal
Cranial Nerve X: Vagus Nerve

Pharyngeal Branch of the Vagus
Superior Laryngeal Nerve of the Vagus
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve of the Vagus
Pharyngeal Plexus

Cranial Nerve XI: Spinal Accessory Nerve
Cranial Nerve XII: Hypoglossal Nerve
Integration of Cranial Nerve Functions

Speech Production
Swallowing

Clinical Implications: Examinations of Speech and Swallowing Mechanisms

Cranial Nerve/Oral Mechanism Examination

Smell and Taste
Vision
Extraocular Movements (CNs III, IV, and VI)
Jaw Movements and Mastication (CN V)
Facial Sensation (CN V)
Muscles of Facial Expression and Oral Preparation (CN VII)
Hearing (CN VIII)
Velar Functions—Motor and Sensory (CNs V, IX, and X)
Laryngeal Functions—Motor and Sensory (CN X)
Spinal Accessory (CN XI)
Lingual Motor Functions (CN XII with a Little Help from CN X)
Lingual Sensation (CNs V and IX)
Oral and Laryngeal Diadochokinetic Rate

Evidence for the OME
Clinical Bedside Swallow Examination and Instrumental Assessment

Summary
Additional Resources

Chapter 12. Limbic System and Reticular Formation
Limbic System Structures and Functions

Homeostasis
Olfaction
Memory
Emotions
Integrating Limbic Information

Reticular Formation and Reticular Activating System
Summary
References and Additional Resources

Chapter 13. Cerebrovascular System
Overview
Blood Supply and Functional Organization
Circle of Willis
Cerebral Blood Supply Distributions
Blood Supply to the Thalamus and Basal Ganglia
Blood Supply to the Cerebellum
Brainstem and Spinal Cord Distributions

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla
Spinal Cord

Blood–Brain Barrier
Disruptions to Blood Supply
Summary
References and Additional Resources

Chapter 14. Communication and Cognition
Overview
Common Developmental Disruptions

Developmental Language Disorders
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Down Syndrome
Fragile X Syndrome

Common Neurologic Insults and Diseases

Traumatic Brain Injury
Degenerative Diseases and Tumors

Communication

Language

Networks
Development
Lesions and Disorders

Pragmatics and Social Cognition

Networks
Development
Lesions and Disorders

Cognition

Executive Functions

Networks
Development
Lesions and Disorders

Memory

Networks
Development
Lesions and Disorders

Attention

Networks
Development
Lesions and Disorders

Summary
References and Additional Resources

Chapter 15. Neuroplasticity
Overview
Neural (Cellular) Plasticity
Behavioral Plasticity

Intensity and Dosage
Factors That Contribute to Participation

Functional Reactivation Versus Functional Reorganization
Summary
References and Additional Resources

Chapter 16. Clinical Cases
Overview
Approach to Solving (Thinking Through) Cases
Section 1: Acquired Cases

Case 16–1. 48-Year-Old Female With Traumatic Brain Injury
Case 16–2: 32-Year-Old Male With Postural Headaches and Mixed Upper/Lower Motor Neuron Signs
Case 16–3. 56-Year-Old Female With Progressive Onset of Dysphagia and Speech Impairments
Case 16–4. 17-Year-Old Female With Traumatic Brain Injury
Case 16–5. 63-Year-Old Male With Aphasia and Right Hemiparesis
Case 16–6. 86-Year-Old Male With Insidious Onset of Cognitive-Communication Changes
Case 16–7. 45-Year-Old Female With Acute Onset of Confusion and Language Impairment
Case 16–8. 62-Year-Old Male With Acute Onset of Lethargy and Impaired Attention
Case 16–9. 52-Year-Old Male With Acute Onset of “Slurred” Speech and “Drunken” Gait
Case 16–10. 70-Year-Old Male With Acute Onset of Dysarthria, Vertigo, Nausea, and Double Vision
Case 16–11. 22-Year-Old With Acute Onset of Weakness and Respiratory Distress
Case 16–12. 62-Year-Old Female With Gradual Onset of Speech and Swallowing Impairments
Case 16–13. 78-Year-Old Female With Gradual Onset of Speech and Gait Disturbances
Case 16–14. 52-Year-Old Female With Declining Cognition, Speech, and Swallowing Function
Case 16–15. 86-Year-Old Female With Memory and Swallowing Difficulties
Case 16–16. 73-Year-Old Male With Right Facial and Tongue Atrophy

Section 2: Pediatric and Developmental Cases

Case 16–17. 5-Year-Old Boy With Shunt Malfunction
Case 16–18. 4-Year-Old Male With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Case 16–19. 30-Year-Old Female With Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum
Case 16–20. 11-Year-Old Male With Brainstem Tumor
Case 16–20. 11-Year-Old Female With Traumatic Brain Injury

Case Question Answers
Reference

Appendix. Review of Head and Neck Anatomy
Review
Face

Facial Skeleton and Cranium
Facial Muscles

Velum
Tongue
Pharynx
Larynx
Neck

Index

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