About The Book

Evaluating and Conducting Research in Audiology is the first research methods textbook that is specific to the field of audiology and designed to serve as an academic textbook for audiology graduate students. This text can also be accessible for audiology practitioners who are interested in clinical and applied research. The comprehensive coverage includes materials for multiple courses within audiology degree programs, including research methods, analysis of professional literature, evidence-based practice, and capstone research projects.

Classroom tested, and written by authors who have extensive backgrounds in publishing and editing, this text provides knowledge that is required in evaluating, conducting, and disseminating research. The book is separated into three sections: (a) research methods; (b) evidence-based practice; and (c) conducting and disseminating research. Together, these sections provide a detailed coverage of the research methods that are relevant to conducting research, particularly in the field of Audiology.

Key Features

  • Learning outcomes at the beginning of each chapter
  • End of chapter reviews including key points and study questions
  • Audiology-specific examples, research methods, and study designs
  • “Golden Nugget” boxes throughout the book containing valuable information related to the critical concepts
  • In-depth discussion of qualitative research methods, survey research methods, and systematic reviews to motivate students and early career researchers to consider these methodologies in their research
  • Access to a PluralPlus companion website with PowerPoint lecture slides for instructors and study questions and related readings for students

From the Forewords:

“…What a pleasure to support these internationally acclaimed authors (each of whom is a researcher, clinician, and educator) in sharing their wealth of knowledge about how to close the gap between clinical research and clinical practice. …If audiology is to thrive and grow into the future as a successful member of the health care professions, its clinical practices must develop a more research-based proof of efficacy. We need the kind of systematic, quantitative approach to pressing clinical issues so effectively detailed in this important volume.”
—Susan Jerger, PhD
Ashbel Smith Professor Emerita School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences University of Texas at Dallas
—James Jerger, PhD
Distinguished Scholar-in-Residence School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences University of Texas at Dallas

Evaluating and Conducting Research in Audiology is authored by Vinjaya Manchaiah, Eldré Beukes, and Ross J. Roeser, who are all clinicians, educators, and researchers. This text is an attempt to address the lack of evidence within our discipline, encourage critical evaluation of published studies, and develop good research practice. The authors are an established team, having collaborated on many research projects.
The chapters guide the reader through all the steps of the research process: critical synthesis of existing literature, identifying gaps-in knowledge that are clinically relevant, formulating a carefully crafted research question, identifying both the ingredients and the recipe to follow in order to answer the question, followed by data collection, analysis, and interpretation. …There are ample opportunities for students and hearing health professionals to benefit from this textbook. The chapters on systematic reviews and evidence-based practice are directly relevant to the approach taken by various organizations (e.g., The Campbell Collaboration, Cochrane, NICE, Johanna Briggs Institute) that promote evidence-based practice. If you want to critically evaluate research, there are chapters for you. If you want to conduct research that uses quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods or surveys, there are also chapters for you. Health care professionals, new and experienced, are well placed to propose research questions based on an urgent unmet need, collaborate on a research study, apply for a short research “taster” session, work as a research audiologist, or undertake research training with the aim of becoming an independent researcher. A research-active workforce will enhance the reputation of the profession, as well as improve the lives of people with hearing loss.”
—Kevin J. Munro, PhD
Ewing Professor of Audiology, Director of the Manchester Centre for Audiology and Deafness, Deputy Director of the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre
The University of Manchester, UK

About The Authors

Vinaya Manchaiah, AuD, MBA, PhD, is a Jo Mayo Endowed Professor of Speech and Hearing Sciences at the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences at Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas. He received is BSc from the All India Institute of Speech and Hearing (AIISH), India, his MSc from the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research (ISVR), University of Southampton, UK, his clinical doctorate (AuD) from Nova Southeastern University, US, and his research doctorate (PhD) from Linköping University in Sweden. He also holds Executive MBA and a post-graduate certificate degree in teaching in higher education from Swansea University in UK. He has worked in various clinical, research, teaching, and administrative roles, although his current academic appointment centers predominantly on research. His research focuses on improving the accessibility, affordability, and outcomes of hearing loss and tinnitus by promoting self-management and use of digital technologies. His research has been funded by various organizations including the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He has published more than 130 peer-reviewed manuscripts and four books. He has received numerous awards including the prestigious Bharat Samman Award from the NRI Institute in India in 2017, Erskine fellowship from the University of Canterbury in New Zealand in 2019, and was named a Jerger Future Leader of Audiology by the American Academy of Audiology in 2016.

Eldré Beukes, PhD, is the Post-doctoral Researcher and Research Audiologist at the Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences at Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas. She received her BSc in South Africa, her MSc in Audiology from the University of Manchester and her PhD was awarded from Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK. She is a clinical scientist in Audiology and was awarded the Richard May prize following her training. She received the prestigious Shapiro prize from the British Tinnitus Association for her research three years in a row (between 2017- 2019) and the Hallpike Research Prize in 2019 from the British Association of Audiological Physicians for her work involving the development and running of clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions.


Ross J. Roeser, PhD holds the Lois and Howard Wolf Professorship in Pediatric Hearing in the School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences at the University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, Texas. He is also the Director Emeritus of The University of Texas at Dallas/Callier Center for Communication Disorders in Dallas.  He is the founding Editor-in-Chief of Ear and Hearing, is currently the Editor-in-Chief Emeritus of the International Journal of Audiology and has contributed to multiple publications to the audiological literature.


Table Of Contents

Section A: Research Methods in Audiology

Chapter 1. The Research Process
Learning Outcomes
The Role of Research within Audiology
Defining Research

Usual Practice
Service Evaluation
Clinical Audit

Overview of the Research Process

Stage 1:  Conceiving the Study

Reviewing the Existing Literature
Developing the Scope and Aim of the Study
Identifying and Formulating Research Questions
Creating Hypotheses

Stage 2: Designing the Study

Research Variables
Experimental Versus Nonexperimental Research
Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research Methodologies
Research Compliance

Stage 3: Data Collection

Data Collection Format
Type and Amount of Data Collected
Data Collection Setting
Data Management

Stage 4: Analyzing Data and Drawing Conclusions

Inspecting the Data for Errors
Statistical Analysis
Drawing Conclusions

Stage 5: Dissemination
Translating Research into Clinical Practice
The Research Proposal

The Research Team
Feasibility of Research Project

Outlining the Resources Required
Planning the Time Scale

Considerations for Recruiting and Maintaining Participants
Preregistration of Studies

Key Points
Review Questions

Chapter 2. Research Compliance
Learning Outcomes
Research Compliance
Ethical Considerations for Human and Animal Research

Ethical Codes

The Nuremberg Code
The Declaration of Helsinki
The Belmont Report

Ethical Principles

Good Clinical Practice
Research Principles Outlined by Professional Associations

Data Protection

Confidentiality and Privacy
The European General Data Protection Act (GDPR)
The United States Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

Research with Vulnerable Groups
Informed Consent

Ways of Providing the Necessary Informed Consent
Capacity to Consent

Research Involving Animals

The Ethical Application Process

Applying for Ethical Approval

Ethical Application in Settings with Ethical Review Boards
Ethical Applications in Independent Settings
Research Ethics for International Research

Research Integrity

Research Fudging
Conflict of Interest
Credit for Intellectual Effort

Types of Copyright License

Active Partnerships to Increase Research Quality and Compliance

Patient and Public Involvement in Research
Reporting PPI Involvement in Academic Publications

Key Points
Review Questions

Chapter 3. Research Methods
Learning Outcomes
Defining Scientific Methods
Scientific Theory, Law, and Models

Scientific Theory
Scientific Law
Scientific Model

History and Philosophy of Science

History of Science
Philosophy of Science

Naïve Realism
Critical Realism

Role of Theory in Research

Deductive Versus Inductive Inference

Research Hierarchy: Methodology, Method, and Design
Types of Research

Empirical Versus Nonempirical Research
Basic Versus Applied Research
Animal Versus Human Research
Descriptive Versus Analytical Research
Exploratory Versus Confirmatory Research

Feasibility Versus Pilot Studies

Prospective Versus Retrospective Research
Quantitative Versus Qualitative Research
Observational Versus Experimental Research
Laboratory Versus Field Research
Cross-sectional Versus Longitudinal Research
Common Ways of Categorizing Research Studies

Research Methodology

Quantitative Research


Qualitative Research
Difference and Opinion Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Mixed-Methods Research

Common Research Strategies Used in Audiology
Key Points
Review Questions

Chapter 4. Research Design
Learning Outcomes
Research Designs

Cross-Sectional Design
Repeated Cross-sectional Design
Cohort Design
Case-Control Design
Experimental Design

Pre-, Quasi-, and True Experimental Designs
A Randomized Controlled Trial
Parallel-Group Versus Crossover Experimental Designs
Treatment Efficacy and Effectiveness Trials

Considerations When Choosing Research Designs
Criteria for Quality in Quantitative Research


Evaluating Clinical Research

Quality Analysis of Studies and Level of Evidence
Nature of Clinical Data
Clinical Practice Guidelines

Rigor and Reproducibility in Scientific Research

The Reproducibility Crisis in Research
Best Evidence versus Best Available Evidence
Minimizing Bias in Research

Key Points
Review Questions

Chapter 5. Variables, Sampling and Sample Size
Learning Outcomes
Variables in Empirical Research

Types of Variables

Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Extraneous Variable
Confounding Variable
Demographic Variable
Environmental Variable

Examples of Different Variables in a Study
Variables During Data Collection and Analysis
Levels of Measurement

Populations and Samples

Parameters Versus Statistics
Sample Characteristics

Sampling Methods

Probability Sampling

Simple Random Sampling
Systematic Random Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
Cluster Sampling

Nonprobability Sampling

Convenience Sampling
Snowball Sampling
Consecutive Sampling
Quota Sampling
Self-Selection Sampling
Purposive Sampling
Theoretical Sampling

Challenges in Implementing Probability Sampling Methods

Sampling Bias

Sample Size

Sampling Error
Power Analysis

Sample Size Estimation
Post Hoc Power Analysis

Challenges in Recruiting Study Participants

Key Points
Review Questions

Chapter 6. Analyzing and Interpreting Quantitative Data
Learning Outcomes
An Overview of Analyzing and Interpreting Quantitative Data
Preparing Data for Analysis

Error Checking and Outliers
Missing Data

Describing the Data

Measures of Central Tendency


Measures of Variability

Standard Deviation
z& Scores
Standard Error

Describing the Distribution

Normal Distribution
Skewness and Kurtosis
Central Limit Theorem
Data Transformation

Selecting Appropriate Statistical Tests

Assumptions Required for Parametric Testing

Assumptions of Normality
Homogeneity of Variance

Considerations When Using Parametric Statistics
Considerations When Using Non-Parametric Statistics

Quantitative Data Analysis

Hypothesis Testing

Specifying the Hypotheses
Probability Values (value)
One- or Two-Tailed Tests
Degrees of Freedom

Alternative or Complementary Approaches to Significance Testing

Effect Size Calculations
Confidence Interval and Margin of Error
Clinical Significance
Bayesian Analysis

Testing Differences Between Two Means

Types of Tests

Comparing Groups

Analysis of Variance
Main Effects and Interaction Effects
Types of Analysis of Variance
Analysis of Covariance
Post Hoc Testing

Examining Relationships Between Variables

Correlation Analysis
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient

Predicting and Assessing the Strength of the Relationship Between Variables

Regression Analysis
Nonparametric Regression Models

Grouping Variables

Factor Analysis
Cluster Analysis

Analyzing the Performance of Diagnostic Tests

Reporting Statistical Test Results

Reporting the Outcome of Statistical Analysis
Visual Representation of the Data
Common Pitfalls When Conducting and Reporting Statistics

Interpreting Statistical Findings
Key Points
Review Questions

Chapter 7. Qualitative Research Methods
Learning Outcomes
Scope and Context of Qualitative Research
Qualitative Research Traditions

Grounded Theory
Action Research
Narrative Research
Case Study

Sampling and Recruiting Participants

Sampling Methods

Convenience Sampling
Snowball Sampling
Purposive Sampling
Maximum Variation Sampling
Theoretical Sampling

Determining Sampling Method
Sampling Adequacy
Other Considerations when Recruiting Participants

Data Collection Methods and Settings

Data Collection Methods

Focus Groups
Document Analysis

Employing Multiple Data Collection Methods
Data Collection Settings
Checking Accuracy

Data Analysis Methods

Two Main Approaches to Qualitative Data Analysis
Data Analysis Steps

Transcribing Data
Becoming Familiar With the Data
Data Organization
Generating Codes
Data Interpretation and Pattern Identification
Tying Field Data to Research Objective(s) and Drawing Verifiable Conclusions

Common Qualitative Data Analysis Methods

Descriptive Analysis
Content Analysis
Thematic Analysis
Constant Comparative Method
Conversation Analysis
Discourse Analysis
Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

Data Saturation and Trustworthiness
Use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software Programs

Role of a Researcher

Emic or Etic Research Perspectives
Theoretical Orientation and Methodological Choices
Training and Experience
Disciplined Subjectivity
Safeguarding Participant  Anonymity
Acknowledging the Role of a Researcher

Reporting Qualitative Research

Thick Description of the Data
Interpretive Themes
Anonymity of Participants
Visual Presentation of the Data

Scientific Rigor in Qualitative Research

Confirmability and Audit Trail

Key Points
Review Questions

Chapter 8. Mixed-Methods Research
Learning Outcomes
Overview of Mixed-Methods Research

Characteristics of Mixed-Methods Research
Comparing Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed-Methods Research
Advantages and Challenges of Mixed-Methods Research

Conducting Mixed-Methods Research

Identifying the Rationale for Mixed-Methods Research
Selecting the Study Design Within Mixed-Methods Research

Identifying the Sampling Strategy

Data Collection
Data Analysis
Data Interferences

Examples of Mixed-Methods Studies in Audiology

Big Data Research Using Mixed Methods
Evaluating Mixed-Methods Research

Key Points
Review Questions

Chapter 9. Survey Research
Learning Outcomes
Defining Survey Research
Advantages and Limitations of Survey Research
Purposes of Surveys

Gathering Opinions, Beliefs, and Feelings
Diagnostic Measure
Outcome Measure
Epidemiological Studies
Multipurpose Surveys

Study Designs in Survey Research

Cross-Sectional Surveys
Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys
Panel Surveys
Survey Experiments

Sampling and Participant Recruitment

Sampling Methods
Sample Size Adequacy

Response Rate

Data Collection Methods

Types of Surveys

Mixed Mode Surveys

Survey Administration Methods

Written Survey
Oral Survey
Paper and Pencil Versus Electronic Survey
First-Hand Versus Third-Party Administration

Types of Questions

Open-Ended Questions
Closed-Ended Questions
Mixture of Open-Ended and Closed-Ended Questions

Response Options

Rating Versus Ranking
Open-Response Formats
Dichotomous Responses
Likert Response Scales
Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)

Missing Data and Erroneous Data
The Importance of Anonymity

Considerations for Designing, Adapting, Validating, or Choosing a Questionnaire

Designing a Questionnaire

Conceptual Clarity
Wording of Questions
Response Formats and Scoring
Question Sequence
Administration Format
Keep Analysis in Mind
Checking Survey Quality

Translation and Adaptation of Questionnaires
Validating a Questionnaire

Floor and Ceiling Effect
Choosing a Questionnaire

Core Outcome Set (COS)

Approaches to Survey Data Analyses

Preparing Data for the Analysis

Types of Data
Data Structure

Choosing a Data Analysis Method

Analysis of Likert Scale Responses

Data Interpretation

Describing Phenomenon
Correlation Versus Causality
Reported Behavior Versus Actual Behavior
Adequacy of Psychometric Properties

Sources of Bias in Survey Research
Key Points
Review Questions

Section B. Evidence-Based Practice

Chapter 10. Evidence-Based Practice
Learning Outcomes
Health-Care Decision Making
Types of Knowledge

Traditional Knowledge
Authority Knowledge
Personal Knowledge
Trial and Error Knowledge
Research-Based Knowledge
Hierarchy of Knowledge Types

Evidence-Based Practice

A Brief History of Evidence-Based Practice
Benefits and Risks of Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence-Based Practice Steps

Step 1 – Developing and Defining Clinical Questions
Step 2 – Search for the Best Available Research Evidence
Step 3 –Synthesize the Evidence
Step 4 – Implement the Evidence
Step 5 – Evaluate the Outcomes

Implementation Issues for Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Practice

Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs)
Acceptance and Adherence Issues
Examples of Challenges for Evidence-Based Practice Implementation

Example 1 – Lack of Organizational Support
Example 2 – Health-Care Service Reimbursement
Example 3 – Overabundance of Available Evidence
Example 4 – Misuse of the Non-Peer-Reviewed Evidence

Common Myths and Misconceptions about Evidence-Based Practice
Evaluating Research for Evidence-Based Practice
The Future of Evidence-Based Practice
Key Points
Review Questions

Chapter 11. Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
Learning Outcomes
Research Reviews in Clinical Practice
Types of Reviews

Narrative (or Descriptive) Review
Scoping Review
Systematic Review
Review of Reviews

Systematic Review Process

Requirements for a Systematic Review
Identifying a Research Area
Establishing the Rationale for Reviews
Formulating Research Questions
Searching and Appraising Previous Reviews

Critical Appraisal Skills Program Checklist for Systematic Reviews
Assessing Methodological Quality of Systematic Review
Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Systematic Reviews

Scoping Search
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria
Review Registration
Developing the Search Strategy

Information Sources
Keyword Selection

Performing the Search and Selecting Appropriate Papers
Referencing Management
Data Extraction
Outcomes and Prioritization
Biases Quality Assessment

Assessment of Methodological Quality
Assessment of Risk of Bias
Determining Level of Evidence

Data Synthesis

Descriptive Synthesis
Narrative Synthesis
Thematic Synthesis
Quantitative Synthesis (Meta-Analysis)

Reporting the Review Outcomes

Performing a Meta-Analysis

Use of Software in Meta-Analysis
Criteria for Performing a Quantitative Synthesis
Assessing Appropriateness of Doing a Meta-Analysis

Principle 1: Power Analysis
Principle 2: Examination of Confidence Interval Width
Principle 3: Assessment of Heterogeneity

Publication Bias
Summary Measures

Statistical Models
Odds or Risk Ratios
Estimating Effect Sizes

Standardization and Weighting Studies
Subgroup Analysis
Sensitivity Analysis

Reporting Guidelines for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis
Key Points
Review Questions

Section C. Conducting and Disseminating Research

Chapter 12. Student-Led Research Projects
Learning Outcomes
Importance of Student-Led Research Projects
Benefits of Student-Lead Research
Elements of Student-Led Research

Selecting the Topic
Selecting a Mentor and Committee Members
Conducting a Literature Review

Access to Full-Text
Inter-Library Loan

Developing the Research Proposal

Identifying the Scope of the Research
Defining the Research Questions
Writing the Research Proposal

Gaining the Necessary Approvals
Involving Service Users in Research
Gathering the Research Data
Data Analysis and Drawing Appropriate Conclusions
Writing and Reporting the Research Findings

Effective Planning of the Research

Creating a Realistic Research Plan
Dealing with Ongoing Challenges
Time Management

Disseminating the Research Outcomes

Examples of Published Student-Led Projects in Audiology

Key Points
Review Questions

Chapter 13. Disseminating Research Findings
Learning Outcomes
Importance of Scientific Findings—Dissemination
Planning Dissemination of Scientific Findings
Presenting Research Findings at Professional Conferences
Scientific Publications

Scientific Truth
Peer-Reviewed Publications

Predatory “Peer-Reviewed” Publications
Publishing Negative Results

Non-Peer-Reviewed Publications
Important Considerations When Choosing the Journal

Scope of the Journal
Target Audience
Manuscript Types and Word Limits
Impact Factor
Conflict of Interest
Copyright Assignment
Open Access
Publication Charges

Tips for Successful Publishing

Invest Enough Time in the Process
Choose the Most Appropriate Journal
Follow the Journal Submission Guidelines
Use Standard Guidelines for Scientific Reporting
Importance of the Cover Letter
Components of the Manuscript
More on the Abstract
Professional Copy Editing
Authorship Order and Honorary Authorship
Addressing Reviewers’ Concerns

Strategies to Enhance Reach and Impact of Research
Reviewing Others’ Research Work

Benefits of Peer Reviewing Others Work
How to Conduct Peer Review of Scientific Work


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