About The Book

This book is a compilation of readings representing the basis for the practice of pediatric audiology. It contains forty-seven selected articles that are considered critical to understanding the fundamental principles in the field. Divided into five sections, the book covers the development of audition in infants, background information for current practice, test techniques and technology, and hearing loss in special populations. The readings in this book provide a foundation of knowledge that should be considered essential for anyone in the field of pediatric audiology.

About The Authors

Fred H. Bess is Associate Director of the Vanderbilt Bill Wilkerson Center of Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences and served as Director of the former Bill Wilkerson Center from 1978 until its merger with Vanderbilt University Medical Center in 1997. He is also Professor of Audiology and Chair of the Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences at Vanderbilt. The Department grants Master’s and Doctoral degrees in Speech/Language Pathology and Audiology.

Dr. Bess completed his undergraduate education at Carthage College in Kenosha, Wisconsin, his Master’s at Vanderbilt University, and his Ph.D. in Audiology at the University of Michigan. In 1969, he initiated and directed the Audiology Program at Central Michigan University, where he remained until joining the Vanderbilt faculty in 1976. He is the author of well over a hundred and fifty journal articles, book chapters, monographs and books dealing with hearing and hearing impairment. Also numbering over one hundred are professional papers presented at scholarly meetings throughout the country. He has been principal investigator or project director for several million dollars in privately and federally funded research, training and demonstration grants. In addition, Dr. Bess has served as chairperson for seven symposia, which attracted international participation.

Dr. Bess holds membership in several professional and learned societies. In 1976, he was inducted as a Fellow of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and in 1984, named a Distinguished Alumnus by Carthage College. The New York League for the Hard of Hearing conferred on Dr. Bess the 1986 Harris M. Jonas Award in Audiology for contributions to the advancement of hearing health care and rehabilitation. In 1992, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Foundation bestowed upon him their prestigious Frank R. Kleffner Clinical Career Award. He is a Charter Member of the American Academy of Audiology and served as its president in 1990. In 1999, Dr. Bess was awarded the Honors of the Association by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and the Frederick S. Berg Educational Audiology Award by the Educational Audiology Association; in 2002, he was awarded the Honors of the Tennessee Association for Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists, for his contributions to children with communication disorders; and in 2003, he was awarded the Dorothy Dreyer Award for Volunteerism by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

Dr. Bess’ recent research interests include minimal hearing loss in children, auditory characteristics of children with autism, and auditory rehabilitation for the elderly.

Judith Gravel, PhD was Director of the Center for Childhood Communication at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and was the William P. Potsic Endowed Chair in Pediatric Otolaryngology and Childhood Communication. Her clinical activities, research interests and publications were in the areas of pediatric audiologic assessment, early identification of hearing loss, the developmental sequelae associated with early otitis media with effusion and mild hearing loss. She was a member of the NIH-NIDCD Working Group on Early Identification of Hearing Impairment and was a co-investigator in the New York State Newborn Hearing Screening Demonstration Project. Dr. Gravel was Chair of the New York State consensus panel that developed the evidence-based Clinical Practice Guideline: Hearing Loss in Children, 0 – 3 Years. She served as audiology liaison on the technical panel that developed the Clinical Practice Guideline on Otitis Media with Effusion. Dr. Gravel served on committees related to childhood hearing loss for the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and the National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management. She served on the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (JCIH) and was Chair of JCIH from 2003 to 2005.

Table Of Contents

  • Preface
  • Section I. Development of Auditory Function
    • 1. Masked and Unmasked Pure-Tone Thresholds of Infants and Adults: Development of Auditory Frequency Selectivity and Sensitivity, Robert J. Nozza and Wesley R. Wilson
    • 2. Pure-Tone Sensitivity of Human Infants, Lynne Werner Olsho, Elizabeth G. Koch, Elizabeth A. Carter, Christopher F. Halpin, and Nancy B. Spetner
    • 3. The Development of a Human Auditory Localization Response: A U-Shaped Function, Darwin W. Muir, Rachel K. Clifton, and Marsha G. Clarkson
    • 4. Size of the Critical Band in Infants, Children, and Adults, Bruce A. Schneider, Barbara A. Morrongiello, and Sandra E. Trehub
    • 5. Infant Auditory Temporal Acuity: Gap Detection, Lynne A. Werner, G. Cameron Marean, Christopher F. Halpin, Nancy Benson Spetner, and Jay M. Gillenwater
    • 6. Developmental Changes in Speech Discrimination in Infants, Rebecca E. Eilers, Wesley R. Wilson, and John M. Moore
    • 7. Linguistic Experience Alters Phonetic Perception in Infants by 6 Months of Age, Patricia K. Kuhl, Karen A. Williams, Francisco Lacerda, Kenneth N. Stevens, and Björn Lindblom
  • Section II. Behavioral Methodology
    Audiometric Assessment

    • 8. The Cross-Check Principle in Pediatric Audiometry, James F. Jerger and Deborah Hayes
    • 9. Response of Infants and Young Children as a Function of Auditory Stimuli and Test Methods, Marie Thompson and Gary Thompson
    • 10. Responses of Infants and Young Children to Behavior Observation Audiometry (BOA), Gary Thompson and Bruce A. Weber
    • 11. Auditory Localization of Infants as a Function of Reinforcement Conditions, John M. Moore, Gary Thompson, and Marie Thompson
    • 12. Visual Reinforcement of Head-Turn Responses in Infants Under 12 Months of Age, John M. Moore, Wesley R. Wilson, and Gary Thompson
    • 13. Response Strength of Young Children in Operant Audiometry, Michael A. Primus and Gary Thompson
      Speech Audiometry
    • 14. Developments in Speech Audiometry, Arthur Boothroyd
    • 15. A Picture Identification Test for Hearing-Impaired Children, Mark Ross and Jay Lerman
    • 16. Articulation Functions and Test-Retest Performance of Normal-Hearing Children on Three Speech Discrimination Tests: WIPI, PBK-50, and NU Auditory Test No. 6, Mary E. Sanderson-Leepa and William F. Rintelmann
    • 17. The BKB (Bamford-Kowal-Bench) Sentence Lists for Partially-Hearing Children, John Bench, Åse Kowal, and John Bamford
    • 18. Pediatric Speech Intelligibility Test: Performance-Intensity Characteristics, Susan Jerger and James Jerger
  • Section III. Electrophysiologic/Physiologic Methodology
    Aural Acoustic Immittance

    • 19. Tympanometric Detection of Middle Ear Effusion in Infants and Young Children, Jack L. Paradise, Clyde G. Smith, and Charles D. Bluestone
    • 20. Tympanometric Gradient Measured from Normal Preschool Children, Katherine A. Koebsell and Robert H. Margolis
    • 21. Identification of Middle Ear Dysfunction in Young Children: A Comparison of Tympanometric Screening Procedures, Jackson Roush, Amelia Drake, and John E. Sexton
    • 22. Identification of Middle Ear Effusion by Aural Acoustic Admittance and Otoscopy, Robert J. Nozza, Charles D. Bluestone, David Kardatzke, and Ruth Bachman
    • 23. Developmental Changes in Static Admittance and Tympanometric Width in Infants and Toddlers, Jackson Roush, Kristin Bryant, Martha Mundy, Susan Zeisel, and Joanne Roberts
    • 24. Identification of Neonatal Hearing Impairment: Ear-Canal Measurements of Acoustic Admittance and Reflectance in Neonates, Douglas H. Keefe, Richard C. Folsom, Michael P. Gorga, Betty R. Vohr, Jay C. Bulen, and Susan J. Norton
      Auditory Brainstem Response Evoked Potential
    • 25. Development of Auditory Function in Newborn Infants Revealed by Auditory Brainstem Potentials, A. Starr, R.N. Amlie, W.H. Martin, and S. Sanders
    • 26. Audiometric Accuracy of the Click ABR in Infants at Risk for Hearing Loss, Martyn L. Hyde, Krista Riko, and Kathy Malizia
    • 27. Auditory Brainstem Responses from Children Three Months to Three Years of Age: Normal Patterns of Response II, Michael P. Gorga, Jan R. Kaminski, Kathryn L. Beauchaine, Walt Jesteadt, and Stephen T. Neely
    • 28. Thresholds for Auditory Brain Stem Responses to Tones in Notched Noise from Infants and Young Children with Normal Hearing or Sensorineural Hearing Loss, David R. Stapells, Judith S. Gravel, and Brett A. Martin
    • 29. Auditory Brain Stem Responses to Air- and Bone-Conducted Clicks in the Audiological Assessment of At-Risk Infants, Edward Y. Yang, Andrew Stuart, George T. Mencher, Lenore S. Mencher, and Michael J. Vincer
    • 30. Auditory Steady-State Evoked Potential in Newborns, Field W. Rickards, Lesley E. Tan, Lawrence T. Cohen, Oriole J. Wilson, John H. Drew, and Graeme M. Clark
      Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions
    • 31. Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions in Normal-Hearing Infants and Children: Emerging Data and Issues, Susan J. Norton and Judith E. Widen
    • 32. Distortion-product and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions of preterm and full-term infants, Jacek Smurzynski, Marjorie D. Jung, Denis Lafreniere, D.O. Kim, M. Vasudeva Kamath, Jonelle C. Rowe, Marlene C. Holman, and Gerald Leonard
  • Section IV. Screening for Auditory Function
    • 33. Modeling the Cost and Performance of Early Identification Protocols, Robert G. Turner
    • 34. The Auditory Brain Stem Response Reliably Predicts Hearing Loss in Graduates of a Tertiary Intensive Care Nursery, Robert Galambos, Gayle E. Hicks, and Mary Jo Wilson
    • 35. Automated Infant Hearing Screening Using the ABR: Development and Validation, Barbara S. Herrmann, Aaron R. Thornton, and Janet M. Joseph
    • 36. Identification of Neonatal Hearing Impairment: Evaluation of Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission, and Auditory Brain Stem Response Test Performance, Susan J. Norton, Michael P. Gorga, Judith E. Widen, Richard C. Folsom, Yvonne Sininger, Barbara Cone-Wesson, Betty R. Vohr, Kelley Mascher, and Kristin Fletcher
    • 37. The New York State Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Demonstration Project: Outpatient Outcome Measures, Beth Prieve, Larry Dalzell, Abbey Berg, Mary Bradley, Anthony Cacace, Deborah Campbell, Joseph DeCristofaro, Judith Gravel, Ellen Greenberg, Steven Gross, Mark Orlando, Joaquim Pinheiro, Joan Regan, Lynn Spivak, and Frances Stevens
    • 38. Universal Screening for Infant Hearing Impairment: Not Simple, Not Risk-Free, Not Necessarily Beneficial, and Not Presently Justified, Fred H. Bess and Jack L. Paradise
    • 39. Universal Screening for Infant Hearing Impairment: Replies to Bess and Paradise, Select Reply Letters
    • 40. Universal Screening for Infant Hearing Impairment: A Reply, Fred H. Bess and Jack L. Paradise
  • Section V. Minimal Hearing Loss
    • 41. Unilateral Hearing Impairment in Children, Fred H. Bess and Anne Marie Tharpe
    • 42. Effects of Conductive Hearing Loss: Fact or Fiction, Ira M. Ventry
    • 43. Hearing Acuity of Children with Otitis Media with Effusion, Thomas J. Fria, Erdem I. Cantekin, and John A. Eichler
    • 44. Development of Speech Intelligibility in Children with Recurrent Otitis Media, Susan Jerger, James Jerger, Bobby R. Alford, and Sue Abrams
    • 45. Listening and Language at 4 Years of Age: Effects of Early Otitis Media, Judith S. Gravel and Ina F. Wallace
    • 46. Speech Recognition in Noise by Children with Minimal Degrees of Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Carl C. Crandell
    • 47. Children with Minimal Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Prevalence, Educational Performance, and Functional Status, Fred H. Bess, Jeanne Dodd-Murphy, and Robert A. Parker

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