About The Book

This comprehensive textbook for undergraduate-level anatomy and physiology courses in communication sciences and disorders programs is neither oversimplified nor excessively detailed. The book is written with clinical endpoints in mind, and only those topics that are ultimately important to understanding, evaluating, and managing clients with speech, hearing, and swallowing disorders are covered.

Drawing on material from the best-selling Preclinical Speech Science: Anatomy, Physiology, Acoustics, and Perception, Third Edition textbook (Hixon, Weismer, & Hoit, 2020), the authors have provided chapters that cover basic concepts in anatomy and physiology, each of the speech subsystems (respiratory, laryngeal, velopharyngeal-nasal, and pharyngeal oral), the auditory system, swallowing physiology, and neural structures and mechanisms that support speech/language, hearing, and swallowing. The text was carefully crafted to meet the needs of entry-level university students and the figures were designed to feature the key elements of the concepts discussed in the text.

New to the Second Edition

  • New author, Brad Story, PhD, who brings fresh ideas and perspectives to the book
  • New introductory chapter that covers several basic concepts of anatomy and physiology
  • 28 videos that demonstrate key concepts in the text, most of which were created specifically for this book
  • Clinical Notes sections that highlight the relevance of anatomy and physiology to the clinical practices of speech-language pathology and audiology
  • Nearly 100 new or updated illustrations
  • Extensively revised text to enhance clarity and provide support for beginning students
  • Updated material based on recent literature

Key Features

  • Numerous beautiful, full-color illustrations
  • Complex information presented clearly and concisely, in an easy-to-understand manner
  • Clinical applications to basic anatomy and physiology are woven throughout the book
  • Supplementary resources on the PluralPlus companion website, including PowerPoint slides and test questions for instructors and videos, study guides, and homework exercises for students

About The Authors

Jeannette D. Hoit, PhD, CCC-SLP is Professor in the Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences and Director of Postdoctoral Affairs at the University of Arizona and a speech-language pathologist. Dr. Hoit received her BA in Anthropology from the University of California at Los Angeles, her MA in Communicative Disorders from San Diego State University, and her PhD in Speech and Hearing Sciences from the University of Arizona, and she pursued postdoctoral study in the Harvard School of Public Health Respiratory Biology Program and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Speech Research Laboratory. Dr. Hoit’s research focuses on speech physiology, with an emphasis on normal aging and development, neuromotor speech disorders, and respiratory function and dysfunction. Dr. Hoit is a past editor of the American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, a fellow of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and past president of the American Association of Phonetic Sciences. She has received a Distinguished Alumnus Award from San Diego State University and several teaching and mentoring awards from the University of Arizona.

Gary Weismer, PhD, is Oros-Bascom Professor Emeritus in the Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, University of Wisconsin-Madison. He received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the Pennsylvania State University and his doctorate from University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1975. Dr. Weismer’s research publications concern speech production in healthy talkers, as well as speech production and speech intelligibility in persons with motor speech disorders. Dr. Weismer served twice as Associate Editor for the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (formerly the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research), as Associate Editor at Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica (FPL) from 2004 to 2011, and as Editor-in-Chief at FPL from 2011 to 2016. During his 35 years at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dr. Weismer won several teaching awards, including for mentoring efforts in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Honors program. Dr. Weismer mentored 16 doctoral students during his career, many of whom are currently scientific leaders and university administrators. He is a past member of the Executive Board of the International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics IALP), an Honored Member of IALP, a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America, and past chair of his department. He has edited, authored, and coauthored five textbooks.

Brad Story, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences and Associate Dean of Faculty Affairs in the College of Science at the University of Arizona. Dr. Story received his BS in Applied Physics from the University of Northern Iowa in 1987 and his PhD in Speech and Hearing Sciences from the University of Iowa in 1995. From 1987-1991, he was employed in industry as an engineer where he developed computational models and instrumentation systems for designing and measuring the performance of mufflers. Dr. Story’s research publications concern the mechanics, aerodynamics, and acoustics of speech production, as well as the perception of speech sounds. Dr. Story is a past and present Associate Editor for the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, a fellow of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), and recipient of the ASA’s Rossing Prize in Acoustics Education in 2016. Dr. Story was recognized by the American Speech Language and Hearing Association in 2013 with the Willard R. Zemlin Lecture Award, and by the University of Iowa in 2018 with a Distinguished Alum Award. His research has been supported by the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation.

Table of Contents



About the Illustrator

Chapter 1. Introduction to Basic Concepts



Speech Subsystems

Hearing Subsystems

Directions and Planes


Anterior/Posterior (Ventral/Dorsal)

Superior/Inferior (Rostral/Caudal)



External/Internal (Superficial/Deep)



Sagittal Plane

Coronal Plane

Horizontal Plane

Tissue Types

Epithelial Tissue

Connective Tissue

Muscle Tissue

Movements and Forces

Stages of Spoken Communication



Chapter 2. Respiratory Structure and Function


Respiratory Anatomy

Skeletal Framework

Respiratory System Subdivisions

Pulmonary Apparatus

Pulmonary Airways


Chest Wall

Rib Cage Wall


Abdominal Wall

Abdominal Content

Pulmonary Apparatus–Chest Wall Unit

Forces of the Respiratory System

Passive Force

Active Force

Muscles of the Rib Cage Wall

Muscle of the Diaphragm

Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

Summary of Passive and Active Forces

Realization of Passive and Active Forces

Movements of the Respiratory System

Movements of Rib Cage Wall

Movements of the Diaphragm

Movements of the Abdominal Wall

Relative Movements of the Rib Cage Wall and Diaphragm-Abdominal Wall

Forces Underlying Movements

Respiratory Control Variables

Lung Volume

Alveolar Pressure

Chest Wall Shape

Neural Substrates of Respiratory Control

Control of Tidal Breathing

Control of Special Acts of Breathing

Peripheral Nerves of Breathing

Ventilation and Gas Exchange During Tidal Breathing

Respiratory Function and Speech Production

Extended Steady Utterances

Running Speech Activities

Variables That Influence Respiratory Structure and Function

Body Position

Body Type



Ventilation and Drive to Breathe

Cognitive-Linguistic and Social Variables

Clinical Notes



Chapter 3. Laryngeal Structure and Function


Laryngeal Anatomy

Skeletal Framework

Thyroid Cartilage

Cricoid Cartilage

Arytenoid and Corniculate Cartilages


Hyoid Bone

Laryngeal Joints

Cricothyroid Joints

Cricoarytenoid Joints

Internal Topography

Laryngeal Cavity

Vocal Folds

Ventricular Folds

Laryngeal Ventricles

Ligaments and Membranes

Intrinsic Ligaments and Membranes

Extrinsic Ligaments and Membranes

Mucous Membrane

Forces of the Larynx

Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles

Extrinsic Laryngeal Muscles

Supplementary Muscles

Infrahyoid Muscles

Suprahyoid Muscles

Summary of the Laryngeal Muscles

Movements of the Larynx

Movements of the Vocal Folds

Vocal Fold Abduction

Vocal Fold Adduction

Vocal Fold Length Change

Movements of the Ventricular Folds

Movements of the Epiglottis

Movements of the Laryngeal Housing

Laryngeal Control Variables

Laryngeal Opposing Pressure

Laryngeal Airway Resistance

Glottal Size and Configuration

Stiffness of the Vocal Folds

Effective Mass of the Vocal Folds

Neural Substrates of Laryngeal Control

Laryngeal Function and Speech Production

Transient Utterances

Sustained Turbulence Noise Production

Sustained Voice Production

Vocal Fold Vibration

Fundamental Frequency

Sound Pressure Level

Fundamental Frequency–Sound Pressure Level Profiles


Voice Registers

Running Speech Activities

Fundamental Frequency

Sound Pressure Level



Variables That Influence Laryngeal Structure and Function



Clinical Notes



Chapter 4. Velopharyngeal-Nasal Structure and Function


Velopharyngeal-Nasal Anatomy

Skeletal Framework



Nasal Cavities

Outer Nose

Forces of the Velopharyngeal-Nasal Mechanism

Muscles of the Pharynx

Muscles of the Velum

Muscles of the Outer Nose

Movements of the Velopharyngeal-Nasal Mechanism

Movements of the Pharynx

Movements of the Velum

Movements of the Outer Nose

Movements That Change the Size of the Velopharyngeal Port

Velopharyngeal-Nasal Control Variables

Velopharyngeal-Nasal Airway Resistance

Velopharyngeal-Nasal Sphincter Compression

Velopharyngeal-Nasal Acoustic Impedance

Neural Substrates of Velopharyngeal-Nasal Control

Velopharyngeal-Nasal Function and Ventilation

Velopharyngeal Function and Speech Production

Sustained Utterances

Velopharyngeal-Nasal Function and Running Speech Activities

Variables That Influence Velopharyngeal-Nasal Structure and Function

Body Position



Clinical Notes



Chapter 5. Pharyngeal-Oral Structure and Function


Pharyngeal-Oral Anatomy

Skeletal Framework



Temporomandibular Joints

Internal Topography

Pharyngeal Cavity

Oral Cavity

Buccal Cavity

Mucous Lining

Forces of the Pharyngeal-Oral Mechanism

Muscles of the Pharynx

Muscles of the Mandible

Muscles of the Tongue

Muscles of the Lips

Movements of the Pharyngeal-Oral Mechanism

Movements of the Pharynx

Movements of the Mandible

Movements of the Tongue

Movements of the Lips

Pharyngeal-Oral Mechanism Control Variables

Pharyngeal-Oral Lumen Size and Configuration

Pharyngeal-Oral Structural Contact Pressure

Pharyngeal-Oral Airway Resistance

Pharyngeal-Oral Acoustic Impedance

Neural Substrates of Pharyngeal-Oral Control

Speech Production: Sound Generation and Filtering

Speech Production: Articulatory Descriptions


Place of Major Constriction

Degree of Major Constriction

Lip Rounding

Real-Life Vowels



Manner of Production

Place of Production


Real-Life Consonants

Speech Production: Articulatory Processes


Articulatory Phonology or Gesture Theory

Variables That Influence Pharyngeal-Oral Structure and Function



Clinical Notes



Chapter 6. Auditory System Structure and Function


Temporal Bone

Peripheral Anatomy of the Ear

Outer Ear (Conductive Mechanism)

Pinna (Auricle)

External Auditory Meatus (External Auditory Canal)

Tympanic Membrane (Eardrum)

Middle Ear (Conductive Mechanism)

Chambers of the Middle Ear

Ossicles and Associated Structures

Ligaments and Muscles of the Middle Ear

Auditory (Eustachian) Tube

Medial and Lateral Wall View of Middle Ear: A Summary

Transmission of Sound Energy by the Conductive Mechanism

Inner Ear (Sensorineural Mechanism)

Semicircular Canals




Basilar Membrane and Organ of Corti

Hair Cells

Traveling Waves

Auditory Nerve and Auditory Pathways (Neural Mechanism)

Auditory Nerve

Central Auditory Pathways

Clinical Notes



Chapter 7. Swallowing Structure and Function



Respiratory, Laryngeal, Velopharyngeal-Nasal, and Pharyngeal-Oral Structures



Salivary Glands

Forces and Movements of Swallowing

Oral Preparatory Phase

Oral Transport Phase

Pharyngeal Phase

Esophageal Phase

Overlap of Phases

Breathing and Swallowing

Neural Control of Swallowing

Role of the Peripheral Nervous System

Role of the Central Nervous System

Variables That Influence Swallowing

Bolus Characteristics

Consistency and Texture



Swallowing Mode

Single Versus Sequential Swallows

Cued Versus Uncued Swallows

Body Position



Clinical Notes



Chapter 8. Brain Structures and Mechanisms for Speech/Language, Hearing, and Swallowing


The Nervous System: An Overview and Concepts

Central Versus Peripheral Nervous System

Anatomical Planes and Directions

White Versus Gray Matter, Tracts Versus Nuclei, Nerves Versus Ganglia

Gray Matter and Nuclei

White Matter and Fiber Tracts


Efferent and Afferent

Lateralization and Specialization of Function

Cerebral Hemispheres

Cerebral Hemispheres

Frontal Lobe

Primary Motor Cortex

Broca’s Area

Premotor and Supplementary Motor Area

Prefrontal Cortex

Parietal Lobe

Temporal Lobe

Occipital Lobe


Limbic System (Limbic Lobe)

Cerebral White Matter

Association Tracts

Arcuate Fasciculus and Speech and Language Functions

Striatal Tracts

Commissural Tracts

Descending Projection Tracts

Ascending Projection Tracts

Subcortical Nuclei and Cerebellum

Basal Ganglia



Brainstem and Cranial Nerves

Surface Features of the Brainstem: Ventral View

Ventral Surface of Midbrain

Ventral Surface of Pons

Ventral Surface of Medulla

Surface Features of the Brainstem: Dorsal View

Dorsal Surface of Midbrain

Dorsal Surface of Pons

Dorsal Surface of Medulla

Cranial Nerves and Associated Brainstem Nuclei

Cranial Nerve V (Trigeminal)

Cranial Nerve VII (Facial)

Cranial Nerve VIII (Auditory-Vestibular)

Cranial Nerve IX (Glossopharyngeal)

Cranial Nerve X (Vagus)

Cranial Nerve XI (Spinal Accessory Nerve)

Cranial Nerve XII (Hypoglossal)

Cortical Innervation Patterns

Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

Spinal Cord

Spinal Nerves

Nervous System Cells

Glial Cells


Cell Body (Soma)


Axon and Terminal Segment


Presynaptic Membrane

Postsynaptic Membrane

Synaptic Cleft

Resting Potential, Action Potential, and Neurotransmitters

Resting Potential

Action Potential

Synaptic Transmission and Neurotransmitters

Neuromuscular Junction

Meninges, Ventricles, and Blood Supply


Dura Mater

Arachnoid Mater

Pia Mater

Meninges and Clinically Relevant Spaces


Lateral Ventricles

Third Ventricle

Cerebral Aqueduct, Fourth Ventricle, and Other Passageways for CSF

Production, Composition, and Circulation of CSF

Blood Supply of Brain

Anterior Circulation

Posterior Circulation

Circle of Willis

MCA and Blood Supply to the Dominant Hemisphere

Blood-Brain Barrier

Clinical Notes




List of Videos on Website

  • Respiratory Anatomy
  • Balloon Analogy of the Respiratory System
  • Diaphragm Movement
  • Ventilation
  • Sustained Vowel – Volume and Pressure
  • Running Speech – Volume and Pressure
  • Vocal Fold Model
  • Adduction, Abduction, Length Change
  • Glottal Fricative and Whisper
  • Vocal Fold Vibration
  • Fundamental Frequency
  • Source-Filter
  • Velopharyngeal Closure
  • VP-N Acoustic Impedance
  • Grandfather Passage
  • Nasalization
  • Hypernasality
  • Vowel Articulation
  • Consonant Articulation
  • Microbeam Abracadabra
  • Sliding Articulatory Gestures
  • Glossectomee
  • Tonotopic Organization
  • Traveling Wave
  • Sound to the Brain
  • Oral Phase Tongue Movement
  • Videofluoroscopy Normal
  • Videofluoroscopy Abnormal


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