About The Book

Unravel the connections between LANGUAGE & LITERACY and help your students thrive in their classrooms and beyond. . .

Language and Literacy Connections: Intervention for School-Age Children and Adolescents takes readers on a path of knowledge steeped in principles and practical applications. This much-needed new text uniquely integrates language learning and disorders and literacy together in a coherent and cohesive narrative that covers the challenges facing school-age students from early elementary levels through high school. Using past and current research and interventions from speech-language pathology (SLP) and reading and literacy arenas, the authors present transcripts, cases, and detailed intervention sessions to provide a template for daily practice. The text raises questions relating to “why am I doing this?” and provides some answers to this most complex, yet basic, question.

Language and Literacy Connections…

  • Uses strong theoretical foundations with detailed applications to real-life situations and practices
  • Highlights the different levels of literacy, from foundational to disciplinary, that underpin current thinking
  • Includes three major sections that build upon one another as the authors navigate through: (1) conceptual frameworks, (2) practical applications across discourse intervention and individual language components, and (3) service delivery models
  • Addresses the role of comprehension in auditory processing and classroom difficulties
  • Compares effective and less effective intervention sessions with explanations about why each fall within a category
  • Debunks common myths and practices that have been questionable for decades but that persist in practice
  • Offers innovative suggestions related to providing collaborative service delivery procedures through virtual online platforms and specific lesson plans
  • Answers the question asked by many school-based SLPs: How do I add literacy on top of my responsibilities when my caseloads are so large and demanding?

Key Features

  • Questions at the beginning of each chapter that reflect concerns of SLPs and their teams
  • Projects and assignments that supplement and review the material
  • Examples of teaching modules with practical lesson plans that integrate the role of SLPs in Interprofessional Practices (IPP) while explicitly addressing the curriculum across a variety of subject areas
  • A PluralPlus companion website with PowerPoint slides for instructors, as well as videos, case studies, and sample forms and reports for

About The Authors

Geraldine P. Wallach, PhD, CCC-SLP, is Professor Emerita in the Department of Speech-Language Pathology at California State University, Long Beach. Her special area of expertise is language and literacy in school-age children and adolescents. An ASHA Fellow and ASHA Honoree, she has published and presented widely at national, state, local, and international levels.

Alaine Ocampo, PhD, CCC-SLP, is an Assistant Professor and School-Based Internship Coordinator in the Department of Speech-Language Pathology at California State University, Long Beach. Her areas of research are in child and school-age language, autism, collaboration, and school-based issues. She has a long history of school administration, supervision, and practice.

Table Of Contents

Foreword xiii
Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xxiii

Reviewers xxvii

Part I. Conceptual Frameworks for Consideration

Chapter 1. Innovative Language Literacy Intervention at School-Age Levels: What It Takes to Get There 
Summary Statement
Questions for Chapter 1
Forming a Framework for Language Intervention: Some Beginnings

On Language
On Literacy
Brief Summary of Definitional Issues

Aspects of Knowledge Needed in Clinicians’ Toolboxes: Peeling Away Some Misconceptions and Moving Forward

Keeping Definitional Issues in Mind: Language Has Layers
Keeping a Broad-Based Perspective: The Forest Versus the Trees
Getting Beneath Isolated Symptoms of Language-Learning Problems: “Tip-of-the-Iceberg” Phenomena
Appreciating the Reciprocity Among Systems: Beware the One-Way Street Interpretation
Approaching Assessment and Intervention with an “Inside” and “Outside” Perspective: External Factors Matter
A Mini Summary

Getting to Innovative Language Literacy Intervention: Where Do We Go from Here?

Language Roots Provide a Familiar Framework for SLPs as They Embrace Roles in Literacy Learning
How We Define Ourselves and the Terminology We Use May Require Some Updating

To Conclude and Move Forward
Reflections and Projects for Chapter 1

Reflection #1

Chapter 2 The Continuum of Language Disorders and Learning Disabilities Definitional and Eligibility Issues 
Summary Statement
Questions for Chapter 2
Introductory Thoughts
Definitions and Diagnostic Labels: Some Interesting Interactions for Clinicians to Note

Language Disorders Terminology
Learning Disabilities Terminology
Related and Intersecting Terminology: Language at the Core?
Additional Terminology: Alive and Well in Schools (and Other Places)
Partial Summary: Language, LD, and Reading Along a Continuum

An Introductory Roadmap of Language Disorders and Language Learning Over Time

Labels Revisited: Disorders Viewed on a Continuum of Change
Language Learning on a Continuum of Changing Styles, Contexts, and Demands

The Path from Language Disorders to Learning Disabilities

Illusionary Recovery

Populations Revisited: Alternatives in Our Midst?

Statistics Suggest Some Patterns within Schools
The Evolution of Response-to-Intervention (RtI)

Some Key Takeaways for SLPs and Collaborators
Looking Ahead
Possible Discussion Points and Projects for Chapter 2

Scenario 1: Language and Learning Disabilities
Scenario 2. Eligibility Considerations
Scenario 3. Create a Case
Additional Projects That Relate Concepts from Chapter 2

Chapter 3 Integrating Spoken and Written Language: An Eye Toward Becoming Literate 
Summary Statement
Questions for Chapter 3
Social/Communicative Language and Academic Language: A River and Highway Intersecting Across Time
The Conversations in Early Reading Routines: A Social Experience Connected to Academic Success

Scenario #1
Scenario #2 (Also Reported by DeTemple, 2001)
Scenario #3
What the Scenarios Say to Us

Print Awareness: Another Bridge to Literacy

Scenario #4

Language Intervention Within Literature-Based Frameworks: Pulling the Pieces Together by Linking the Forest and the Trees

Scenario #5
Scenario #6

Summary Points from the Scenarios: Early Reading Routines, Print Awareness, and Literature-Based Frameworks Meet on the Road to Literacy
The Horizon Looms Large: Connecting Early and Later Literacy Experiences

Fast-Forward to Grade 5

The Continuum Revisited: Keeping the “Bigger Picture” in Mind

The Early Stage (Preschool and Very Beginnings of School: Kindergarten and Grade 1)
The Middle Stage (Grades 2–6)
Advanced Stage (Grades 5–6 and Beyond)

In Closing for Now
Possible Discussion Points and Projects for Chapter 3
Appendix 3–A. Examples of Scripts at Each Level Used in the Book-Sharing Intervention Based Upon the Work of van Kleeck et al. (2006)
Appendix 3–B. Suggested Sequence of Literature-Based Language Activities Based Upon the Work from Gillam and Ukrainetz (2006)

Chapter 4 From Preliteracy to the Literacies of School: How Curriculum-Relevant Intervention Begins 
Summary Statement
Questions for Chapter 4
Curriculum-Based Intervention: Some Beginnings

Math Is Language and a Symbol System on Top of a Symbol System
Examples from Grade 6 Provide Additional Insights into the Complexity of Language in Curricular Content
Opportunities For SLPs: What Language Do Our Students Need to Access and Acquire Curricular Knowledge?

Reflections: What the Math Examples Say to Us
Curriculum-Relevant Intervention Continued: A Historical Example
Reflections: SLPs and History
Curriculum-Relevant Intervention Continued: A Look at Science

A Closer Look at the Language of Science: What SLPs Need to Know

In Sum: The Importance of Understanding Disciplinary Literacy

The Following Points Might Be Highlighted for School-Based SLPs and Future Clinicians

Roles and Responsibilities: The Long Road to Clarification
Revisiting Clinicians’ Perceptions About Daily Practice: Roles in Literacy and Beyond

Aspects of Self-Reflection

Thoughts on Shared Responsibilities in Literacy
Ending Comments

Possible Discussion Points and Projects for Chapter 4

Content-Area Excerpts

Part II. Practical Applications of the Frameworks

Chapter 5 Exploring Elements of Processing and Comprehension: Getting Beneath the “Tip-of-the-Iceberg” of Symptoms and Intervention Choices 
Summary Statement
Questions for Chapter 5
Second-Language Learning Experiences: Do They Help Us Understand Language Disorders and Related Symptoms?
Processing and Comprehension Challenges in French: Based Upon a True Story

The Language Participants
First Scenario
Second Scenario
Last Scenario
What the Scenarios Say to Clinicians: Factors to Consider When Creating Language Intervention Goals

Cases in Point: Perceptual and Language Knowledge Revisited

Auditory Discrimination and New Vocabulary
Auditory Figure Ground and Language Proficiency

Some Classic Missteps

Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
Case 4

Where Do the Cases Take Us?

Beware of Quick and Easy Answers

Concepts from Information Processing Theory Offer Insights into Language Learning Disabilities

(1) The Concept of Mental Models
(2) The Idea of Competing Resources
(3) The Role of Automaticity

From Information Processing Considerations to the Metalinguistic Component
Keep the Conversation Going
Possible Discussion Points and Projects for Chapter 5

Chapter 6 What Language Intervention “Looks Like” at School-Age Levels: The Intervention–Assessment Connection 
Summary Statement
Questions for Chapter 6
Who Shall Be Called “Language Disordered”? Selected Thoughts Revisited
Principles of Assessment at School-Age Levels: Broader Paths to Intervention

Consider the Following Five Assessment Principles (Adapted from Ocampo & Wallach, 2019; Wallach, 2018a)

Snapshots from Clinical Sessions That Demonstrate Aspects of What Language Intervention “Looks Like” at School-Age Levels

Snapshot #1
Snapshot #2
Snapshot #3
Snapshot #4 (Taking a More In-Depth Look at a Language Intervention Session)
Snapshot Summary: A Review of Our Five Principles and Beyond

Asking Additional Questions About School-Age Intervention

Language Underlying Academic Tasks
The Knowledge, Skills, and Strategies Triad
Question Summary

Taking a Closer Look at What Intervention Goals Might Look Like
Going Back to the Theoretical Base for Additional Examples of Intervention Directions

Sentence Comprehension: Some General Points
Sentence Comprehension: Some Classics from the Psycholinguistic Literature
From Theory to Practice: How Might We Bridge the Gap?
A Phonemic Segmentation Cover Sheet

From the Student to the Context: Back to Classroom and Curricular Concerns

The Culture of Schools Encased in Teacher Talk: More of What It Takes?

Curricular Issues Revisited: Even More “What It Takes?” Examples
Some Preliminary Closing Thoughts: What It Must Be Like to Have a Language Disorder
Intervention Is a Complex Balance of Many Variables: Chewing Gum and Walking at the Same Time
In Closing
Possible Discussion Points and Projects for Chapter 6
Appendix 6–A. Levels of Questioning (Blank, Rose, & Berlin 1978, 2003)
Appendix 6–B. Example of an Assessment Report for Treatment Planning
Appendix 6–C. Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy Action Verbs—Reference These Verbs When Formulating Goals for Students

Chapter 7 Seeing the World Through Connected Text: Bringing Structure and Content, Macro and Micro Pieces Together (Part 1) 
Summary Statement
Questions for Chapter 7
What Written Language Samples May Tell Us

Dissection of the Mars Piece: Keep the Disciplinary Literacy of Science in Mind
Disciplinary Literacy Revisited: Keep Science in Mind
Summary: From Written Samples, to Textbooks, to Knowing Text Requirements

Discourse Sampling and Additional Resources for Consideration

A Useful Discourse Protocol
Students with Language Learning Disabilities and the Hadley Protocol

Narrative and Expository Text: Taking an Even Closer Look
Additional Patterns in Connected Text: Selected Examples from the Field

Some Brief Reflections

Revisiting Some Generalities About Text and Text Processing
Moving On
Possible Discussion Points and Projects for Chapter 7
Appendix 7–A. Suggestions on Eliciting Conversation, Narrative, and Expository Samples of Connected Speech and Eliciting Story Retelling/Generation (Adapted from Hadley, 1998)
Appendix 7–B. Five Traits Related to a Holistic Scoring Rubric and Descriptors (for Expository and Narrative Passages)

Chapter 8 Seeing the World Through Connected Text: Bringing Structure and Content, Macro and Micro Pieces Together (Part 2) 
Summary Statement
Questions for Chapter 8
Syntactic Skill and Word Knowledge: Moving Toward Successful Strategic Acquisition and Use

Syntactic Considerations
Helping Students Appreciate, Recognize, and Use Literate Forms
A Closer Look at Word Knowledge and Skill
Word Savvy Summary: A Curriculum Connection Worth Repeating
What “Strategic” Language Intervention Looks Like: Moving Beyond Syntax and Vocabulary
Selected Samples to Help Students Become More Strategic

School’s Back in Session: An Integration of Components and Disciplinary Literacies of Science and Social Studies

Science Revisited
Creating Authenticity: A Pragmatic Notion
Using Accessible Text to Create Content Knowledge
Understanding the Text Itself: Matching Text Activities to Content-Area Subjects
History Repeats Itself: Some Reminders

Toward a Summary: Macro and Micro Components Come Together in a Backdrop Drawn from Classroom Content

Stop Light Organization
Really Finally

Possible Discussion Points and Projects for Chapter 8
Appendix 8–A. Targeting 10 Missteps: Scenarios for Further Discussion

Part III. Toward a Summary

Chapter 9 Back into the Field: Starting to Pull the Missing Pieces Together 
Summary Statement
Questions for Chapter 9
State of the Art in Public Education: Keep “Fighting the Fight” to Collaborate

Thoughts as We Look Back and Approach the End

State Standards: An Example of Keeping Language Functional and Relevant
English Language Arts Content

From Grades 7 and 8
From Grade 5

Looking Across the State Standards
Explicit CCSS Connections with Disciplinary Literacy

Example of an In-Class History Lesson for Middle School (Sixth Grade)

Sample Lesson
Possible Discussion Points and Projects for Chapter 9

Chapter 10 The End Becomes a New Beginning: Evaluating Intervention Sessions and Sequences 
Summary Statement
Questions for Chapter 10
Why Am I Doing This? A Metaexploration of Selected Intervention Activities

Activity One
Activity Two
Activity Three
Activity Four
Activity Five
Activity Six
Activity Seven
Activity Eight
Activity Nine
Activity Ten
Activity Eleven

Ending on a Positive Note

Web Resources



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