About The Book

The thoroughly revised Sixth Edition of the best-selling Treatment Resource Manual for Speech-Language Pathology remains an ideal textbook for clinical methods courses in speech-language pathology, as well as for students entering their clinical practicum or preparing for certification and licensure. It is also a beloved go-to resource for practicing clinicians who need a thorough guide to effective intervention approaches/strategies.

This detailed, evidence-based book includes complete coverage of common disorder characteristics, treatment approaches, information on reporting techniques, and patient profiles across a wide range of child and adult client populations. The text is divided into two sections. The first part is focused on preparing for effective intervention, and the second part, the bulk of the book, is devoted to therapy strategies for specific disorders. Each of these chapters features a brief description of the disorder, case examples, specific suggestions for the selection of therapy targets, and sample therapy activities. Each chapter concludes with a set of helpful hints on intervention and a selected list of available therapy materials and resources.

New to the Sixth Edition

This new edition includes updated citations and references throughout as well as current information on treatment efficacy in all disorder chapters to reflect recent developments in the field. In addition, the authors have added the following:

  • A new chapter on Contemporary Issues including critical thinking, telepractice, simulation technologies, and coding and reimbursement
  • New tables on skill development in gesture, feeding, and vision
  • New information on therapist effects/therapeutic alliance
  • Coverage of emerging techniques for voice disorders and transgender clients
  • Expanded information on:​​​​​​
    • Childhood Apraxia of Speech
    • Cochlear Implants
    • Cultural and Linguistic Diversity
    • Interprofessional Practice
    • Shared Book-Reading
    • Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Treatment Dosage/Intensity
    • Vocabulary Development

Key Features

  • Bolded key terms with an end-of-book glossary
  • A multitude of case examples, reference tables, charts, figures, and reproducible forms
  • Lists of Additional Resources in each chapter
  • Access to a PluralPlus companion website containing PowerPoint lecture slides and quizzes for each chapter, and all of the forms from the book in digital format for easy duplication and customization to specific experiences


“Named to Doody’s Core Titles in the Health Sciences – Speech, Language & Hearing 2020 list.”
Doody’s (May 2020)

“This is an excellent resource for clinicians in speech-language pathology, whether beginners or seasoned experts. It has a plethora of helpful forms and ideas for therapy. There are books that focus on clinical methods, but this is a one-of-a-kind resource manual that has no real competitor. I have used it for years in an undergraduate clinical methods class and the students have commented that it is easy to read and helpful. When they get into the clinic, I often see them using it to prepare for their therapy sessions. The authors have updated citations and references throughout to keep up with changes in the field. They also have added a new chapter on contemporary issues, which includes topics like telepractice and simulation technologies and new information in existing chapters (e.g., transgender voice therapy in the chapter on voice). These additions and updates justify a new edition. …Clinicians in the field should consider this book a core title in their libraries, and training programs should have it on hand for their student clinicians to reference.”
—Matthew H. Rouse, MS, SLPD, Biola University, in Doody’s Book Reviews

About The Authors

Froma P. Roth, PhD, is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, in the Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences.

Colleen K. Worthington, MS, is a Clinical Professor and the Director of Clinical Education in Speech-Language Pathology within the Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences at the University of Maryland, College Park.

Table of Contents

Case Examples by Disorder

List of Tables

List of Forms and Figures



About the Authors


Part One. Preparing for Effective Intervention


Chapter 1. The Essential Ingredients of Good Therapy: Basic Skills


Universal Design Principles for Learning: An Overarching Framework

General Principles of Intervention


Selection of Therapy Targets

Sequencing of Therapy Targets


Termination of Therapy

Formulation of Behavioral Objectives

Theories of Learning

Innateness Theory/Biological Model

Behavioral Model

Constructivism/Interactionist/Integrative Model

Behavior Modification

Types of Reinforcement

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Schedules of Reinforcement

Key Teaching/Scaffolding Strategies


Session Design

Basic Training Protocol

Task Order

Dynamics of Therapy

Group Therapy

Data Collection

Recording Session Data


Collaborative Service Delivery Models

Multitiered Systems of Support/Response to Intervention

Current Challenges of RTI

Treatment Efficacy/Evidence-Based Practice

Treatment Intensity and Dosage

Setting Specific Professional Terminology

Troubleshooting Tips for Therapy Sessions


Additional Resources

Appendix 1–A: Therapy Observation Checklist

Appendix 1–B: Worksheet for Identifying Behavioral Objectives

Appendix 1–C: Worksheet for Formulating and Writing Behavioral Objectives

Appendix 1–D: Sample Daily Therapy Plan

Appendix 1–E: Daily Therapy Plan

Appendix 1–F: Report of Observation Hours

Appendix 1–G: Instructions for Using Data Recording Forms

Appendix 1–H: Sample Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Plan


Chapter 2. Information Reporting Systems and Techniques


Technical Writing Style

Report Formats

Initial Therapy Plan

Session Notes

Progress and Final Reports

Tips for Proofreading Clinical Reports

Individualized Education Program

Due Process

Individualized Family Service Plan

504 Plan

Professional Correspondence

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

Additional Resources

Appendix 2–A: Sample Initial Therapy Plan

Appendix 2–B: Sample Progress Report

Appendix 2–C: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)


Part Two. Providing Treatment for Communication Disorders


Chapter 3. Intervention for Articulation and Phonology in Children

Treatment Approaches



Distinctive Features

Paired Oppositions–Minimal and Maximal

Phonological Processes

Cycles Approach

Core Vocabulary


Oral-Motor Considerations

Treatment Efficacy and Evidence-Based Practice

Target Selection for Intervention Programming



Helpful Hints (Functional Articulation Disorders)

Helpful Hints (Phonological Disorders)

Organic Articulation Disorders

Cleft Palate

Helpful Hints

Hearing Impairment

Helpful Hints

Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Helpful Hints


Articulation and Phonology

Oral-Motor Dysfunction

Additional Resources



Appendix 3–A: Phonetic Placement Instructions for Difficult-to-Teach Sounds

Appendix 3–B: Diadochokinetic Rates for Children


Introduction to Chapters 4 and 5. Introduction to Language Intervention for Children and Adolescents

Classification of Language Disorders

Relationship Between Oral Language and Literacy

Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist in Literacy

Theoretical Models of Intervention

Treatment Efficacy/Evidence-Based Practice


Chapter 4. Intervention for Language in Infants and Preschool Children

Intervention with Infants (Birth to 3 Years)

ASHA Early Intervention Guidelines

Prelinguistic and Early Language Therapy Targets

Helpful Hints

Intervention with Children (3 to 5 Years)

Treatment Approaches for Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers

Emergent Literacy Intervention (Birth Through Preschool Years)

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources

Appendix 4–A: Developmental Language Milestones: Birth to 5 Years

Appendix 4­­–B: Gross and Fine Motor Developmental Milestones

Appendix 4–C: Stages of Cognitive Development

Appendix 4–D: Gesture Developmental Milestones: 9 to 16 Months

Appendix 4–E: Development of Vision

Appendix 4–F: Feeding Developmental Milestones

Appendix 4–G: Stages of Play Development

Appendix 4–H: Developmental Toy List

Appendix 4–I: Examples of Lessons from “Promoting Awareness of Speech Sounds” (PASS)


Chapter 5. Intervention for Language in School-Age Children Through Adolescence

Characteristics of Students Ages 5 to 10 Years

Characteristics of Adolescents 10 to 18 Years

Intervention Considerations for School-Age Children and Adolescents

The Common Core State Standards

Treatment Approaches for School-Age Children and Adolescents

Instructional Strategies for Writing

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources

Appendix 5–A: Types of Cohesion


Chapter 6. Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Overview of Autism Spectrum Disorder



Characteristics of Children with ASD

Social Communication

Repetitive/Restricted Behaviors, Interests, and Activities


Emergent Literacy and Literacy



Treatment Efficacy/Evidence-Based Practice

Treatment for Autism

Theoretical Models

Treatment Approaches

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources


Chapter 7. Intervention for Adult Aphasia with Introduction to Traumatic Brain Injury

Froma P. Roth, Colleen K. Worthington, and Emily DeAngelis


Classification of Aphasia Syndromes

Treatment Efficacy/Evidence-Based Practice

Treatment for Aphasia


Theoretical Orientations to Aphasia Treatment

Guidelines for Programming and Implementing Therapy

Specific Intervention Procedures

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources

Traumatic Brain Injury


Executive Functioning

Attention and Memory


Treatment Efficacy/Evidence-Based Practice

Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources

Appendix 7–A: Suggestions for Enhancing Verbal Interaction With a Family Member With Aphasia

Appendix 7–B: Guidelines for Conversational Coaching


Chapter 8. Intervention for Motor-Speech Disorders: The Dysarthrias, Apraxia of Speech, and Dysphagia

Treatment for Motor-Speech Disorders

The Dysarthrias

Treatment Efficacy/Evidence-Based Practice

Treatment for the Dysarthrias

Helpful Hints

Apraxia of Speech

Treatment Efficacy/Evidence-Based Practice

Treatment for Apraxia of Speech

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources


Treatment for Dysphagia

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources


Chapter 9. Intervention for Fluency

Categories of Stuttering Behaviors

Core Behaviors

Secondary Behaviors

Developmental Disfluencies Versus Stuttering

Treatment for Fluency Disorders

Treatment Efficacy/Evidence-Based Practice

Intervention Techniques

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources

Appendix 9–A: Sample Phrases, Questions, and Monologues


Chapter 10. Intervention for Voice and Alaryngeal Speech

Voice Disorders

Classification of Voice Disorders

Treatment Efficacy/Evidence-Based Practice

Treatment for Voice Disorders

Intervention Techniques

Transgender Voice

Helpful Hints

Alaryngeal Speech

Treatment for Alaryngeal Clients

Mechanical Devices

Esophageal Speech

Tracheoesophageal (TEP) Speech

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources

Appendix 10–A: Additional Dialogue Scripts for Voice Therapy Activities


Chapter 11. Client and Family Counseling

Five Key Traits of an Effective Counselor

Stages of Counseling

Establishing the Therapeutic Relationship

Implementing Counseling Intervention

Terminating the Therapeutic Relationship

Client and Family Emotional Reactions to Communicative Disorders

Counseling Techniques for Communicative Disorders

Group Counseling

Family Systems Counseling

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources


Chapter 12. Multicultural Issues in Intervention

Cultural Competence

Cultural/Ethnic Background

Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Linguistic Differences

Clinical Considerations for Children


Patterns of Second Language Acquisition

Educational Models

Clinical Considerations for Adult Populations

Clinical Considerations for Multilingual Populations with Language Disorders

Helpful Hints


Additional Resources


Chapter 13. Contemporary Issues

Critical Thinking

Components of Critical Thinking

Strategies/Techniques for Promoting Critical Thinking


Privacy and Regulatory Issues

Basic Clinician Competencies With Technology

Candidates for Telepractice Services

Simulation Technologies

Standardized Patients (SPs)

Computer-Based Learning Experiences (CBLEs)


Coding and Reimbursement

CPT Codes

ICD-10 Codes




Appendix A. ASHA Code of Ethics

Appendix B. International Phonetic Alphabet Symbols

Appendix C. Glossary of Selected Medical Terms

Appendix D. Schematic of the Vocal Tract





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